It is often observed that term information system and information technology or informatics are used interchangeably.
When deciding which of these computer-related paths to pursue, it’s critical to be clear and detailed about exactly what it is you’re looking for in a career. By fully understanding the differences and similarities between information systems and information technology, prospective students can better select an educational path. Gathering data about your prospective field and evaluating it carefully will allow who to make an informed choice about the best career path.
Obviously, in the irrational sciences it is important to express history, but in rational sciences, history will not be auxiliary to discussions, so this paper avoids the expression of the history of words.
Information technology has shown exponential growth in the last decade, leading to more sophisticated information systems. Today’s information technology has tremendously improved quality of life. Modern economic has benefited the most with better information system using the latest information technology.
Information systems have been known to mankind in one form or the other as a resource for decision making. However, with the advent of information technology information systems have become sophisticated, and their usage proliferated across all walks of life. Information technology has helped managed large amount of data into useful and valuable information.
Three of confusions, between the concepts studied in this paper Informatics and Computer Science are translated with "Informatik" in German in the website dict.leo.org or Frequently Asked Questions in Forums stackexchange.com Even until recently, a referral of the informatics page to computer science on Wikipedia (Informatics: Revision history), Even in some Russian language textbooks, concepts have not been defined (БИЗНЕС-ИНФОРМАТИКА). These cases indicate the necessity of this issue and the exact identify of the boundaries and the limits of each of the concepts.
Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Ontology (information science): In computer science and information science, an ontology is a formal naming and definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities that really exist in a particular domain of discourse. Ontology (information science)
Data and information are used interchangeably, yet they are not the same thing.
Big data is data sets that are so voluminous and complex that traditional data processing application software are inadequate to deal with them.
Knowledge: the information, skills, and understanding that you have gained through learning or experience; when you know about a particular situation or event, or the information you have about it. (Longman)
Information can be regarded as organized facts and figures that have meaning within a context that is intended to be interpreted by people. Data consists of facts and figures, which become information when seen in context and convey a meaning. Computers process data without any understanding of what the data represents.(Sulochana Devi & Raman Nair)
Knowledge is used to interpret and apply information. Once this is done decisions can be made on the information received. For example if we were driving a car and the traffic signals in front shows red we will stop the car. The red light is data. The information is to stop and the knowledge we use to turn the data into information is from Traffic Rules.(Sulochana Devi & Raman Nair)
Science: the information, skills, and understanding that you have gained through learning or experience; [uncountable] the study of science; [countable] a particular part of science, for example biology, chemistry, or physics; something is not an exact science (Longman)
Engineering is the application of scientific knowledge and mathematical methods to practical purposes of the design, construction or operation of structures, machines, or systems.
Information Technology (IT) is the term that encompasses all forms of technology used for creation, acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by computer based systems and networks. It is the area of managing technology and spans wide variety of areas that include but arc not limited to things such as processes, computer software and hardware, information systems, programming languages, and data constructs. In short, anything that renders data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via any multimedia distribution mechanism, is considered part of the domain space known as Information Technology.(Sulochana Devi & Raman Nair)
Communication Technology: It is the principles involved in how computer systems communicate with each other and the standards, protocols, and conventions that determine how such systems communicate and concerned mechanisms. This generally involves data transfer from one computer to another through a telephone, physical cable, and microwave relay or satellite link. Connection of computers is generally through the linking of workstations by cables in a network, through the public telephone service, the use of leased line or wireless.(Sulochana Devi & Raman Nair)
Information and Communications Technology usually called ICT is the term that encompasses all forms of technology used for creation, acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications. It is often used as an extended synonym for Information Technology but is usually a more general term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), intelligent knowledge management systems and audio-visual systems in modem information technology. ICT consists of all technical means used to handle information and aid communication, including computer and network hardware, communication middleware as well as necessary software. In other words, ICT consists of IT as well as telephony, broadcast media, all types of audio and video processing and transmission and network based control and monitoring functions.(Sulochana Devi & Raman Nair)
Computer Science: the study of computers and what they can do.(Longman)
Computer science: The study of complex systems, information and computation using applied mathematics, electrical engineering and software engineering techniques.
Computer Science: internal features, structure and behavior of computer systems(University of California)
Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.
Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory (which explores the fundamental properties of computational and intractable problems), are highly abstract, while fields such as computer graphics emphasize real-world visual applications. Other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, while the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans.
Information Science: the science of collecting, arranging, storing, and sending out information.(Longman)
Computer science: The study of complex systems, information and computation using applied mathematics, electrical engineering and software engineering techniques.
Information science : Information science, the study of the processing, management, and retrieval of information.
Technology: new machines, equipment, and ways of doing things that are based on modern knowledge about science and computers.(Longman)
Information Technology is the study or use of systems (especially computers and telecommunications) for storing, retrieving, and sending information.
Information technology or Information technology engineering as academic field is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Information technology (IT) is the application of computers to store, study, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). In 2012, Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level "contain[s] some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications."
The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.
Authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.
Information Technology, while it can be considered a sub of informatics, information science and computer science, tends to be its own entity because of the heavy emphasis on the management of technology with less and less attention on cognitive and social aspects, especially when compared to Information systems who has priority focus on such aspects.
Information technology typically includes hardware, software, databases and networks. Information technology often governs the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of digitized information, or data, generated through the disciplines of computing and telecommunications. Information technology focuses on managing technology and improving its utilization to advance the overall business goals.
A career in information technology often requires a degree in computer or information science and can offer several career paths, such as cybersecurity, network or database administration, infrastructure management, business intelligence or enterprise resource planning, computer programming and software development.
Information technology, the study, design, development, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems Information technology.
Degree programs in information technology typically include courses in:
Information systems and information technology are growing fields that offer a variety of job options and long-term professional growth. Although these fields are related, individuals who are interested in a technology-related career should understand the differences in order to select educational programs that will prepare them for a career that best matches their skills, interests and goals.
Information Management is the collecting, storing, and communicating of information.
Information management (IM) concerns a cycle of organizational activity: the acquisition of information from one or more sources, the custodianship and the distribution of that information to those who need it, and its ultimate disposition through archiving or deletion. Not to be confused with Content management or Knowledge management.
Management Information System: A computerized information-processing system designed to support the activities of company or organizational management.
Information Management is an organizational program that manages the people, processes and technology that provide control over the structure, processing, delivery and usage of information required for management and business intelligence purposes.
Data Management is a subset of Information Management. It comprises all disciplines related to managing data as a valuable, organizational resource. Specifically, it’s the process of creating, obtaining, transforming, sharing, protecting, documenting and preserving data.
Information technology management(Information technology in management & Information technology and management)
IT management is the discipline whereby all of the information technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data center facilities, as well as the staff who are hired to maintain them.
System is a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network.
In a literal sense, information technology is a subset of information systems. Information systems consist of people, processes, machines and information technology. The great advancement in information systems is due to development in information technology and introduction of computers.
Information System: An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data. Further, "[a]n information system (IS) is a group of components that interact to produce information. It focuses on the internal rather than the external."
A computer information system is a system that a branch of Science composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information. The term is also sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to only the software used to run a computerized database or to refer to only a computer system.
Information Systems is an academic study of systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data. An emphasis is placed on an information system having a definitive boundary, users, processors, storage, inputs, outputs and the aforementioned communication networks.
An information system can be defined as set of coordinated network of components, which act together towards producing, distributing and or processing information. An important characteristic of computer-based information systems information is precision, which may not apply to other types.
In any given organization information system can be classified based on the usage of the information. Therefore, information systems in business can be divided into operations support system and management support system.
Information technology falls under the IS umbrella but deals with the technology involved in the systems themselves. Information technology can be defined as the study, design, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems.
Information system and information technology are similar in many ways but at the same time they are different. Following are some aspects about information system as well as information technology.
informatics is the science of processing information electronically.(Longman)
informatics is the science of processing data for storage and retrieval; information science.(Oxford)
informatics: (computing) A branch of information science and of computer science that focuses on the study of information processing, particularly with respect to systems integration and human interactions with machine and data.
Informatics is the science of information and computer information systems. As an academic field it involves the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. The field considers the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organisations, technologies and systems. It also develops its own conceptual and theoretical foundations and utilizes foundations developed in other fields. As such, the field of informatics has great breadth and encompasses many individual specializations, including disciplines of computer science, information systems, information technology and statistics. Since the advent of computers, individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally. This has led to the study of informatics with computational, mathematical, biological, cognitive and social aspects, including study of the social impact of information technologies.
Informatics (academic field), a broad academic field encompassing human-computer interaction, information science, information technology, algorithms, areas of mathematics (especially mathematical logic and category theory), and social sciences that are involved Information technology, the study, design, development, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems Information technology.
In a business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems".
Informatics is the science of information. It studies the representation, processing, and communication of information in natural and artificial systems. Since computers, individuals and organizations all process information, informatics has computational, cognitive and social aspects. Used as a compound, in conjunction with the name of a discipline, as in medical informatics, bio-informatics, etc., it denotes the specialization of informatics to the management and processing of data, information and knowledge in the named discipline.(Michael Fourman)
Informatics can be synonymous with various terms. In academic field it is a broad area encompassing human-computer interaction, information science, information and communication technology, algorithms, and social science. In Computer Science it is the study of complex systems, information and computation using applied mathematics, electrical engineering and software engineering techniques. In Information Science it is the study of the processing, management, and retrieval of information. In Information Technology it is the study, design, development, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems. Like this in different subject fields like Archival Informatics, Bio Informatics, Community Informatics, Computational Informatics, Development Informatics, Engineering Informatics, Environmental Informatics, Geo Informatics, Health Informatics, Music Informatics, Social Informatics, Agricultural Informatics etc, it is different and it denote the application of ICT in the concerned areas.(Sulochana Devi & Raman Nair)
Informatics (Academic): In academic field Informatics is the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. Informatics studies the structure, algorithms, behaviour, and interactions of natural and artificial systems that store, process, access and communicate information. It also develops its own conceptual and theoretical foundations and utilizes foundations developed in other fields. Since the advent of computers, individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally. This has led to the study of Informatics that has computational, cognitive and social aspects, including study of the social impact of Information Technologies. Loosely, it can be thought of as ‘studying how to design a system that delivers the right information, to the right person in the right place and time, in the right way,’ and is intimately tied to workflow discussions and standards.(Sulochana Devi & Raman Nair)
In 1957 the German computer scientist Karl Steinbuch coined the word Informatik to mean ‘Informatics: Automatic Information Processing’.(Sulochana Devi & Raman Nair)
The term was coined as a combination of ‘information’ and ‘automatic’ to describe the science of automating information interactions. The morphology-informat-ion + -ics-uses ‘the accepted form for names of sciences, as conics, linguistics, optics, or matters of practice, as economics, politics, tactics’, and so, linguistically, the meaning extends easily to encompass both the science of information and the practice of information processing.(Sulochana Devi & Raman Nair)
This new term was adopted across Europe, and, except in English, developed a meaning roughly translated by the English 'computer science', or 'computing science'. Mikhailov and others advocated the Russian term informatika (1966), and the English Informatics (1967), as names for the theory of scientific information, and argued for a broader meaning, including study of the use of Information Technology in various spheres of activity and of the interaction of technology and human organizational structures.(Sulochana Devi & Raman Nair)
Informatics: relationship between what is inside the computer and what is outside(University of California)
Informatics: installing new software, upgrades,networks LAN WANS, firewalls(forum.wordreference.com)
What these areas have in common is informatics: the focus on information and how it is represented in, processed by, and communicated between a variety of systems. Representations include paper, analogue, and digital records of text, sounds and images, as well as, for instance, the information represented in a gene, and the memories of an individual or an organization. Processing includes human reasoning, digital computation, and organizational processes. Communication includes human communication and the human-computer interface - with speech and gesture, with text and diagram, as well as computer communications and networking, which may use radio, optical or electrical signals.
Informatics studies the interaction of information with individuals and organizations, as well as the
fundamentals of computation and computability, and the hardware and software technologies used to store, process and communicate digitised information. It includes the study of communication as a process that links people together, to affect the behaviour of individuals and organizations.
An information system (IS) is any organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data.
"An information system (IS) is a group of components that interact to produce information."
A computer information system is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information. The term is also sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to only the software used to run a computerized database or to refer to only a computer system.
Information systems is an academic study of systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data. An emphasis is placed on an information system having a definitive boundary, users, processors, storage, inputs, outputs and the aforementioned communication networks.
Any specific information system aims to support operations, management and decision-making. An information system is the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, and also the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.
Some authors make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems, and business processes. Information systems typically include an ICT component but are not purely concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end use of information technology. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.
Alter argues for advantages of viewing an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans or machines perform processes and activities using resources to produce specific products or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying information.
As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.
Information systems are the primary focus of study for organizational informatics.
Information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) are often considered synonymous. In reality, information technology is a subset of information systems. The perception that these terms can be used interchangeably can cause confusion for individuals interested in pursuing a technology-related career. Although both these fields deal with computers, they have distinct characteristics and specific career paths that require different education and training.
Information systems is an umbrella term for the systems, people and processes designed to create, store, manipulate, distribute and disseminate information. The field of information systems bridges business and computer science. One of the reasons people may not distinguish between IS and IT is that they assume all information systems are computer-based systems. An information system, however, can be as simple as a pencil and a piece of paper. Separate, the objects are just tools. Used together, they create a system for recording information. Although information systems are heavily reliant on computers and other technology-based tools, the term predates computers and can include non-technological systems.
A degree in information systems often includes courses in:
Careers in information systems can include a variety of fields, such as actuarial sciences, analytics and programming, communications, computer security and auditing.
1. Transaction Processing Systems
1.1. A transaction processing system provides a way to collect, process, store, display modify or cancel transactions. Most of these systems allow multiple transactions to take place simultaneously. The data that this system collects is usually stored in databases which can be used to produce reports such as billing, wages, inventory summaries, manufacturing schedules, or check registers.
2. Management Information Systems
2.1. A management information system is an information system that uses the data collected by the transaction processing system and uses this data to create reports in a way that managers can use it to make routine business decisions in response to problems. Some of the reports that this information system creates are summary, exception and ad hoc reports. All this is done to increase the efficiency of managerial activity.
3. Decision Support Systems
3.1. A decision support system helps make decisions by working and analyzing data that can generate statistical projections and data models. This system gives support rather than replacing a managers judgement while improving the quality of a managers decision. A DSS helps solve problems while using external data.
4. Expert Systems and Neutral Networks
4.1. An expert system, also known as a knowledge-based system, is a computer system that is designed to analyze data and produce recommendations, diagnosis and decisions that are controlled. A neutral system uses computers to foster the way a human brain may process information, learn and remember that information.
5. Information Systems in Organizations
5.1. This information system collects, stores and processes data to give an organization real time useful and accurate information. This information system encompasses data gathering information from the people and machines that collect, process, output and store data. Also in the networks that transmit and receive data and the procedures that govern the way data is handled.
It is an interdisciplinary subject primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. Practitioners within the field; study the application and usage of knowledge in organizations, along with the interaction between people, organizations and any existing information systems, with the aim of creating, replacing, improving or understanding information systems. Information science is mistakenly considered a branch of computer science. It is actually a broad, interdisciplinary field, incorporating not only aspects of computer science, but often diverse fields such as archival science, cognitive science, linguistics, commerce, communications, law, library science, museology, management, mathematics, philosophy, public policy, and the social sciences.
Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders involved and then applying information and other technologies as needed. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system. In this respect, information science can be seen as a response to technological determinism, the belief that technology ‘develops by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources available, and must therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and ultimately permeating all other subsystems of society.’ Within information science, attention has been given in recent years to human-computer interaction, groupware, the semantic web. value sensitive design, and to the ways people generate, use and find information. Today this field is called the Field of Information, and there arc a growing number of Schools and Colleges of Information.
Information Science consists of knowledge and understanding on how to collect, classify, manipulate, store, retrieve and disseminate any type of information. It is a major portion of what is left after the hardware and general software like OS are kept aside in ICT.
Some scholars treat Informatics as a synonym for information science, especially related to the concept developed by A. I. Mikhailov and other Soviet authors in the mid sixties, which suggested that Informatics is a discipline related to the study of Scientific Information. Because of the rapidly evolving, interdisciplinary nature of Informatics, a precise meaning of the term ‘Informatics’ is difficult to set out.
Informatics and information sciences became popular when the first digital information devices were introduced. Modern organizations exchange the information using information transmission devices and their programming systems. IT specialists understand the latest information and communication technology issues, develop software and solve practical engineering problems. Informatics and information science integrates disciplines such as computer science, communication studies, complex systems, information theory, information technology, didactics of informatics, etc.
Masters in Informatics will offer students abilities that are related to a logical, strategic and analytical thinking. Informatics graduates are able to analyse and find alternative solutions to problems, to identify measures of system performance. They develop the ability to combine pieces of information and to formulate general rules while keeping one step ahead with new trends in the field.
Career opportunities for graduates cover a wide range of options: archivists, systems developers, programmers, system designers, web designers, web developers, information architects, business analysts, database administrators, product managers, web content managers.
Informatics and information science integrates disciplines such as computer science, communication studies, complex systems, information theory, information technology, etc. Masters in Informatics will offer students abilities that are related to a logical, strategic and analytical thinking.
Informatics is essentially the theoretical and fundamental knowledge and concept behind the applied fields of information technology (IT) and its more human/organizational cousin, information systems (IS). Informatics incorporates concepts from computer science (CS) and information science in order tackle issues that consider the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organizations, technologies and systems.
Informatics is the study, theorizing and research around the storage (and potentially access) of data (information). It is a concept and a discipline.
business the activity of making money by producing or buying and selling goods, or providing services (Longman)
business : Commercial activity.(Oxford)
Industrial and commercial are two different methods of business which include many different fields. There is a core difference between them. Industrial refers to any venture or business which deals with the manufacturing of goods. It does not include transportation, financial companies, and utilities. Commercial refers to any business or venture done with the sole motive of gaining a profit.
Business informatics (BI) or organizational informatics is a discipline combining information technology (IT), informatics and management concepts. Business informatics (BI) integrates core elements from the disciplines of business administration, information systems and computer science into one field.
Business informatics(BI) shows similarities to information systems (IS) but there are a few differences that make business informatics a unique own discipline:
Business informatics includes information technology, like the relevant portions of applied computer science, to a larger extent than information systems does.
Business informatics includes significant construction and implementation oriented elements. I.e. one major focus lies in the development of solutions for business problems rather than the ex post investigation of their impact.
Information systems (IS) focuses on empirically explaining phenomena of the real world. IS has been said to have an "explanation-oriented" focus in contrast to the "solution-oriented" focus that dominates Business informatics. Information systems (IS) researchers make an effort to explain phenomena of acceptance and influence of IT in organizations and the society applying an empirical approach. In order to do that usually qualitative and quantitative empirical studies are conducted and evaluated. In contrast to that, Business informatics researchers mainly focus on the creation of IT solutions for challenges they have observed or assumed.
Informatics is more the focus on the systems associated, ie, databases, network structures, websites, and other information systems... Information technology is more focused on the hardware and software on individual units... Informatics focuses on the whole organization... Informatics specialist...
Some of the dictionary meanings of “informatics ” used as a noun which comes with different adjectives are:
Something resulting from or relating to informatics . For example, industrial development.
biomedical informatics given in the introduction "as the scientific field that deals with biomedical information, data, and knowledge - their storage, retrieval, and optimal use for problem-solving and decision making" (Shortliffe et al., 2001)
define bioinformatics as the subset of the field that focuses on information, data, and knowledge in the context of biological and biomedical research. By our definition the culture and environment (context) in which bioinformatics is studied and applied are that of the researcher in the laboratory seeking new knowledge. (MEDICAL INFORMATICS Knowledge Management and Data Mining in Biomedicine 2005)
The science of informatics drives innovation that is defining future approaches to information and knowledge management in biomedical research, clinical care, and public health. Informatics researchers develop, introduce, and evaluate new biomedically motivated methods in areas as diverse as data mining (deriving new knowledge from large databases), natural language or text processing, cognitive science, human interface design, decision support, databases, and algorithms for analyzing large amounts of data generated in public health, clinical research, or genomics/proteomics. The science of informatics is inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on (and contributing to) a large number of other component fields, including computer science, decision science, information science, management science, cognitive science, and organizational theory.
All work in informatics is motivated by the need to create new solutions--often using information technology-atics and Computing defines the field as “the study and application of information technology to the arts, science and professions, and to its use in organizations and society at large.
The formal study of information, including its structure, properties, uses, and functions in society, in particular the technology used to record, organize, store, retrieve, and disseminate it. For a discussion of the history and current state of informatics, please see the entry by A. E. Cawkell in the International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science (1997). Click here to connect to the homepage of the Center for Social Informatics at the School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University. Compare with information science.
Informatics is the science of information. It studies the representation, processing and communication of information in natural and artificial systems. Since computers, individuals and organizations all process information, informatics has computational, cognitive and social aspects.
Used as a compound, in conjunction with the name of a discipline, as in medical informatics, bioinformatics, etc., it denotes the specialization of informatics to the management and processing of data, information and knowledge in the named discipline.
The terminology is therefore intended to indicate a broader approach than that taken by the more techno-centric definitions of either Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), which focuses on use of ICTs for delivery of specific development goals, or Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD), which looks at use of ICTs in developing countries.
The main network for those active in development informatics is the International Development Informatics Association, which organises conferences and publications in the field.
Rapid developments in data availability call for innovative approaches to longstanding questions related to government and politics. We are of the view that interdisciplinary collaborations hold the key to important advances, but also recognize that identifying projects that serve the research objectives of scholars from different fields can be challenging.
PoliInformatics seeks to leverage advances in computer science, machine learning (broadly defined) and data visualization to facilitate discovery in large structured and unstructured government datasets. One of our central objectives is promote interdisciplinary conversations leading to collaborative research opportunities involving social scientists, journalists, and information and computer scientists.
Our Steering Committee includes experts in legal informatics, political science, machine learning, political economics, communication, information science, data journalism, electrical engineering, statistics, visualization, and information systems.
The PoliInformatics Research Coordination Network (RCN) is called PiNet. We will be sharing information on this site and on the PiNet Wiki . Please look for more information about forthcoming Research Competitions in Autumn 2013, or contact us so that we can add you to our mailing list.
Cutting-edge research in interdisciplinary political science increasingly employs technologically sophisticated methods to analyse multiple sources of large-scale data. You will exploit the growing availability of open-source data to study trends in socio-economic context, consumption and values and their effects on political behaviour, using advanced data collection, analysis and visualisation techniques. Such core substantive interests will form the basis for bids as a PI, leading to a £500k+ core project bid to a major funding body, as well as cross-Faculty collaboration on a Horizon 2020 bid.You will play a key role alongside and in collaboration with colleagues in the School of Politics and International Studies (POLIS) with quantitative expertise and interests. You will be well positioned to link between POLIS and the Leeds Institute for Data Analytics. You will also have the potential to work with the School of Geography and the Centre for Spatial Analysis and Policy, which contains a number of researchers with interests in political behaviour and spatial analytics, as well as the ESRC TALISMAN node.There is also scope for links with the School of Media and Communication, on social media analytics, and the School of Computing, on data visualisation. In POLIS’s teaching portfolio, you will contribute to core provision in analytical skills development for both UGs and PGs, including core methods at level 2, and the introduction of appropriate tools for empirical research beyond basic statistical knowledge – programming environments, GIS, social media analytics, etc.With expertise in social science informatics and a substantive focus on political behaviour, you will have, as essential: (1) strong expertise in Python, webscraping, social media analytics; (2) expertise in applied social science informatics, e.g. GIS, network analysis; (3) expertise in statistical methods (Stata and/or R); (4) at least two lead-authored papers in international peer-reviewed journals, preferably cross-disciplinary; (5) evidence of having secured pilot funding or a small research grant.
Parliamentary informatics is the application of information technology to the documentation of legislative activity. The principal areas of concern are the provision, in a form conveniently readable to humans or machines, of information and statistics about:
Parliamentary informatics is carried on both by officials of legislatures and by private for-profit and non-profit actors, with motivations ranging from the administration of parliaments to lobbying and facilitating democratic discourse.
The division of activities between official and unofficial activity differs widely between polities, even within a single country. There exists substantial overlap with disciplines such as psephology and, as far as the text of successfully enacted legislation is concerned, legal informatics in general.
The use of parliamentary informatics is also a rapidly growing trend in parliamentary monitoring. In a September 2011, joint report from the National Democratic Institute and World Bank Institute, a survey of parliamentary monitoring organisations (PMOs) found that parliamentary informatics are used by approximately 40 percent of PMOs worldwide. The report states, "These tools can automatically aggregate and organize information from parliamentary websites and other information sources, generate visualizations (such as political finance maps), and create new platforms for citizens to interact with MPs or participate in parliamentary monitoring and policy analysis.
Community informatics (CI), also known as community networking, electronic community networking, community-based technologies, community technology or grassroots computing refers to an emerging field of investigation and practice concerned with information and communication technology (ICT) in relation to communities and their social, cultural, service development, economic and other dimensions. It is formally located as an academic discipline within a variety of academic faculties including information science, information systems, computer science, planning, development studies, and library science among others and draws on insights on community development from a range of backgrounds and disciplines. It is an interdisciplinary approach interested in using ICTs for different forms of community action, as distinct from pure academic study about ICT effects. It is the application of information and communication technology to enable and empower community processes.
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by, Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011). Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has received), and transformation (saved effort of questioning – equivocation minus dissipation) (Denning and Bell, 2012).
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.
Pervasive informatics is the study of how information affects interactions with the built environments they occupy. The built environment is rich with information which can be utilised by its occupants to enhance the quality of their work and life. By introducing ICT systems, this information can be created, managed, distributed and consumed more effectively, leading to more advanced interactions between users and the environment. The social interactions in these spaces are of additional value, and Informatics can effectively capture the complexities of such information rich activities. Information literally pervades, or spreads throughout, these socio-technical systems, and pervasive informatics aims to study, and assist in the design of, pervasive information environments, or pervasive spaces, for the benefit of their stakeholders and users.
Pervasive informatics is the study of how information affects interactions with the built environments they occupy. The term and concept were initially introduced by Professor Kecheng Liu during a keynote speech at the SOLI 2008 international conference.
The built environment is rich with information which can be utilised by its occupants to enhance the quality of their work and life. By introducing ICT systems, this information can be created, managed, distributed and consumed more effectively, leading to more advanced interactions between users and the environment. The social interactions in these spaces are of additional value, and Informatics can effectively capture the complexities of such information rich activities. Information literally pervades, or spreads throughout, these socio-technical systems, and pervasive informatics aims to study, and assist in the design of, pervasive information environments, or pervasive spaces, for the benefit of their stakeholders and users.
1 Pervasive computing
2 Pervasive spaces
3 Theories and techniques
3.2 Distributed cognition
4 Trend and future research
5 See also
7 External links
Pervasive informatics may be initially viewed as simply another branch of pervasive, or ubiquitous computing. However, pervasive informatics places a greater emphasis on the ICT-enhanced socio-technical pervasive spaces, as opposed to the technology driven direction of pervasive computing. This distinction between fields is analogous to that of informatics and computing, where Informatics focuses on the study of information, while the primary concern of computing is the processing of information. Pervasive informatics aims to analyse the pervasive nature of information, examining its various representations and transformations in pervasive spaces, which are enabled by pervasive computing technologies e.g. smart devices and intelligent control systems.
A pervasive space is characterised by the physical and informational interaction between the occupants and the built environment e.g. the act of controlling the building is a physical interaction, while the space responding to this action/user instruction is an informational interaction.
Intelligent pervasive spaces are those that display intelligent behaviour in the form of adaptation to user requirements or the environment itself. Such intelligent behaviour can be implemented using artificial intelligence algorithms and agent-based technologies. These intelligent spaces aim to provide communication and computing services to their occupants in such a way that the experience is almost transparent e.g. automated control of heating and ventilation based on occupant preference profiles.
The term first appeared in an IBM Research Report  but was not properly defined or discussed until later. An intelligent pervasive space is a “social and physical space with enhanced capability through ICT for human to interact with the built environments”  An alternative definition is “an adaptable and dynamic area that optimises user services and management processes using information systems and networked ubiquitous technologies”. A common point between these definitions is that pervasive computing technologies are the means by which intelligence and interactions are achieved in pervasive spaces, with the purpose of enhancing a users experience.
Theories and techniques
Historically, there have been few attempts to consolidate approaches to studying the complex interplay between occupants and the built environment, and to assist in the design of pervasive information environments. Many theoretical interdisciplinary approaches are relevant to the design of effective pervasive spaces. A core concept in pervasive informatics is the range of interactions that may occur in pervasive spaces: people to people, people to the physical and the physical space to technological artefacts such as sensors. In order to study these interactions it is necessary to have an understanding of what information is being created and exchanged. In light of this, a series of theories which enable us to consider both social and technological interactions together form the foundations of pervasive informatics 
Socio-technical systems provide an approach which assists in understanding and supporting the use of pervasive technologies. The space could be considered as a network of artefacts, information, technology and occupants. By adopting STS approaches, a means for dynamically investigating and mapping such networks becomes possible.
Distributed cognition can be used to explain how information is passed and processed, with a focus on both interactions between people, in addition to their interactions with the environment. These interactions are analysed in terms of the trajectories of information.
Human interactions with a space, and its effect on coordination mechanisms have been examined in the field of computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). The concepts of media spaces and awareness have also emerged from CSCW which are of relevance to pervasive informatics.
Semiotics, the study of signs, can be used to assess the effectiveness of a built environment from six different levels: physical, empirical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic and social. Semiotics enables us to understanding the nature and characteristics of sign-based interactions in pervasive spaces.
Trend and future research
The current technology-centred view of pervasive computing is no longer sufficient for studying the information in the built environment. Socio-technical approaches are required to direct attention to the interaction between the built environment and its occupants. The concept of pervasive informatics then captures this shift, and enables current research efforts in different fields to converge their focus and consolidate their methods under one label, leading to a better direction and understanding of this complex domain. Research issues identified for further study in pervasive informatics:
Understanding the impacts of intelligent pervasive spaces and enabling technologies on occupants 
Designing organisations as pervasive information systems—the role of information and artefacts in communication and interaction.
Context-dependent information and knowledge management, towards effective decision support in pervasive spaces.
Service-oriented design of intelligent buildings as adaptive and learning information spaces with regards to norms and emerging practices in intelligent pervasive spaces.
Through-life intelligent support in building management, with a better understanding of the lifecycle of pervasive spaces from the conception, design, implementation, utilisation till recycling to achieve the building performance and sustainability.
The list, of course, is not exhaustive, but they all address the issues that lie on the boundaries between the physical, informational and social-capturing the essence of pervasive spaces.
1) Rights and obligations of information: What are the rights of individuals and corporations about information about themselves? What are the legal means to protect it? And what are the obligations for that information. “These rights include: Privacy is the right of individuals to be left in peace. Technology and information systems threaten the privacy of individuals to make cheap, efficient and effective invasion. Due process requires the existence of a set of rules or laws that clearly define how we treat information about individuals and that appeal mechanisms available.
2) Property rights: how to move the classical concepts of patent and intellectual property in digital technology? What are these rights and how to protect? Information technology has hindered the protection of property because it is very easy to copy or distribute computer information networks. Intellectual property is subject to various protections under three patents: Trade secrets: Any intellectual work product used for business purposes may be classified as secret. Copyright: It is a concession granted by law to protect creators of intellectual property against copying by others for any purpose for a period of 28 years. Patents: A patent gives the holder, for 17 years, an exclusive monopoly on the ideas on which an invention
3) Responsibility and control: Who is responsible and who controls the use and abuse of information from the People. The new information technologies are challenging existing laws regarding liability and social practices, to force individuals and institutions accountable for their actions Five Moral dimensions of information Age
4) Quality systems: What data standards, information processing programs should be required to ensure the protection of individual rights and society? It can hold individuals and organizations for avoidable and foreseeable consequences if their obligation is to see and correct
5) Quality of life: What values should be preserved and protected in a society based on information and knowledge? What institutions should protect and which should be protected? The negative social costs of introducing information technologies and systems are growing along with the power of technology. Computers and information technologies can destroy valuable elements of culture and society, while providing benefits
رشته انفورماتیک (به انگلیسی: Informatics) علم اطلاعات و پردازش اطلاعات و مهندسی سامانههای اطلاعاتی است. انفورماتیک ساختار و الگوریتمها و رفتار و اثر متقابل سیستمهای مصنوعی و طبیعی که به دنبال ذخیرهسازی و پردازش و دسترسی و نقل و انتقال اطلاعات را بررسی میکند همچنین مطالعات تقابل انسان و رایانه را نیز مورد بررسی قرار میدهد.
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