Fadak - Concepts - Information Technology Management
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Information Technology Management

  1. Ontology of Information Science
    1. Informatics vs. Information Science 
  2. Information Technology Managemet vs. Information Technology
    1. Information technology management
    2. Information technology
  3. Information Systems vs. Information Technology
    1. Introduction
    2. Information System
    3. Information Technology
    4. Comparison of Information System vs. Information Technology
    5. Future of Information System vs. Information Technology
    6. Informatics vs. Information Sciences
  4. Information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) in Academic
    1. Information Systems
    2. Information Technology
      1. 5 Types of Information Systems
    3. The Bottom Line
    4. Moral dimensions of information:

Ontology of Information Science

Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

Information science is the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.

Big data is data sets that are so voluminous and complex that traditional data processing application software are inadequate to deal with them.

informatics is the science of processing information electronically.(Longman)

informatics is the science of processing data for storage and retrieval; information science.(Oxford)

Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers.

Engineering is the application of scientific knowledge and mathematical methods to practical purposes of the design, construction or operation of structures, machines, or systems.

Ontology (information science): In computer science and information science, an ontology is a formal naming and definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities that really exist in a particular domain of discourse. Ontology (information science)

System is a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network.

Information Technology is the study or use of systems (especially computers and telecommunications) for storing, retrieving, and sending information.

Information Management is the collecting, storing, and communicating of information.


The science of informatics drives innovation that is defining future approaches to information and knowledge management in biomedical research, clinical care, and public health. Informatics researchers develop, introduce, and evaluate new biomedically motivated methods in areas as diverse as data mining (deriving new knowledge from large databases), natural language or text processing, cognitive science, human interface design, decision support, databases, and algorithms for analyzing large amounts of data generated in public health, clinical research, or genomics/proteomics. The science of informatics is inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on (and contributing to) a large number of other component fields, including computer science, decision science, information science, management science, cognitive science, and organizational theory.
All work in informatics is motivated by the need to create new solutions--often using information technology-atics and Computing defines the field as “the study and application of information technology to the arts, science and professions, and to its use in organizations and society at large.

(Computing) A branch of information science and of computer science, that focuses on the study of information processing and particularly as respect to systems integration and human interactions with machine and data.

The formal study of information, including its structure, properties, uses, and functions in society, in particular the technology used to record, organize, store, retrieve, and disseminate it. For a discussion of the history and current state of informatics, please see the entry by A. E. Cawkell in the International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science (1997). Click here to connect to the homepage of the Center for Social Informatics at the School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University. Compare with information science.

Informatics is the science of information. It studies the representation, processing and communication of information in natural and artificial systems. Since computers, individuals and organizations all process information, informatics has computational, cognitive and social aspects.
Used as a compound, in conjunction with the name of a discipline, as in medical informatics, bioinformatics, etc., it denotes the specialization of informatics to the management and processing of data, information and knowledge in the named discipline.

 Center for Automation, Robotics, and Distributed Intelligence

 Bachelor of Science | Kent State University

 ComSIS | Computer Science and Information Systems

Information and Computer Science

The double role of ontologies in information science research - Fonseca - 2007 - Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology - Wiley Online Library

Computer science: The study of complex systems, information and computation using applied mathematics, electrical engineering and software engineering techniques.

Informatics (academic field): Information science, the study of the processing, management, and retrieval of information Information science  Informatics (academic field), a broad academic field encompassing human-computer interaction, information science, information technology, algorithms, areas of mathematics (especially mathematical logic and category theory), and social sciences that are involved

Information technology, the study, design, development, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems Information technology.
In a business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems".

Informatics vs. Information Science 

Informatics and information science integrates disciplines such as computer science, communication studies, complex systems, information theory, information technology, didactics of informatics, etc. Masters in Informatics will offer students abilities that are related to a logical, strategic and analytical thinking.

the science of processing data for storage and retrieval; information science.

information technology
the study or use of systems (especially computers and telecommunications) for storing, retrieving, and sending information.

So I’d say understanding and applying the science vs engaging in study and actual use. A pretty rather narrow differentiation.

Informatics is essentially the theoretical and fundamental knowledge and concept behind the applied fields of information technology (IT) and its more human/organizational cousin, information systems (IS). Informatics incorporates concepts from computer science (CS) and information science in order tackle issues that consider the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organisations, technologies and systems.

IT, while it can be considered a sub of informatics, information science and CS, tends to be its own entity because of the heavy emphasis on the management of technology with less and less attention on cognitive and social aspects, especially when compared to IS who has priority focus on such aspects.

Informatics is the study, theorizing and research around the storage (and potentially access) of data (information). It is a concept and a discipline.
Information Technology should primarily be thought of as the tools (machine and human) that are used to conduct a task, which could be storage and access of data.
A person doing informatics work might be looking to improve Information Technology to be more efficient, less expensive or “just generally better” with data. Think portable storage getting physically smaller while faster read/write at higher capacities for lower costs.

Informatics is more the focus on the systems associated, ie, databases, network structures, websites, and other information systems... Information technology is more focused on the hardware and software on individual units... Informatics focuses on the whole organisation... Informatics specialist...

Information Technology Managemet vs. Information Technology

Information technology management

Information technology management(Information technology in management & Information technology and management)
IT management is the discipline whereby all of the information technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data center facilities, as well as the staff who are hired to maintain them.

Information technology

Information technology(Information technology engineering)

 Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

Information Systems vs. Information Technology


It is often observed that term information system and information technology are used interchangeably. In a literal sense, information technology is a subset of information systems. Information systems consist of people, processes, machines and information technology. The great advancement in information systems is due to development in information technology and introduction of computers.

Information System

An information system can be defined as set of coordinated network of components, which act together towards producing, distributing and or processing information. An important characteristic of computer-based information systems information is precision, which may not apply to other types.

In any given organization information system can be classified based on the usage of the information. Therefore, information systems in business can be divided into operations support system and management support system.

Information Technology

Everyday knowingly or unknowingly, everyone is utilizing information technology. It has grown rapidly and covers many areas of our day to day life like movies, mobile phones, the internet, etc.

Information technology can be broadly defined as integration of computer with telecommunication equipment for storing, retrieving, manipulating and storage of data. According to Information Technology Association of America, information technology is defined as “the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems.”

Information technology greatly enhances the performance of economy; it provides edge in solving social issues as well as making information system affordable and user friendly.

Information technology has brought big change in our daily life be it education, life at home, work place, communication and even in function of government.

Comparison of Information System vs. Information Technology

Information system and information technology are similar in many ways but at the same time they are different. Following are some aspects about information system as well as information technology.

Origin: Information systems have been in existence since premechanical era in form of books, drawings, etc. However, the origin of information technology is mostly associated with invention of computers.
Development: Information systems have undergone great deal of evolution, i.e. from manual record keeping to the current cloud storage system. Similarly, information technology is seeing constant changes with evermore faster processor and constantly shrinking size of storage devices.
Business Application: Businesses have been using information systems for example in form of manual books of accounts to modern TALLY. The mode of communication has also gone under big change, for example, from a letter to email. Information technology has helped drive efficiency across organization with improved productivity and precision manufacturing.

Future of Information System vs. Information Technology

Information technology has shown exponential growth in the last decade, leading to more sophisticated information systems. Today’s information technology has tremendously improved quality of life. Modern medicine has benefited the most with better information system using the latest information technology.

Information systems have been known to mankind in one form or the other as a resource for decision making. However, with the advent of information technology information systems have become sophisticated, and their usage proliferated across all walks of life. Information technology has helped managed large amount of data into useful and valuable information.


Informatics vs. Information Sciences

Informatics and information sciences became popular when the first digital information devices were introduced. Modern organisations exchange the information using information transmission devices and their programming systems. IT specialists understand the latest information and communication technology issues, develop software and solve practical engineering problems. Informatics and information science integrates disciplines such as computer science, communication studies, complex systems, information theory, information technology, didactics of informatics, etc.
Masters in Informatics will offer students abilities that are related to a logical, strategic and analytical thinking. Informatics graduates are able to analyse and find alternative solutions to problems, to identify measures of system performance. They develop the ability to combine pieces of information and to formulate general rules while keeping one step ahead with new trends in the field.
Career opportunities for graduates cover a wide range of options: archivists, systems developers, programmers, system designers, web designers, web developers, information architects, business analysts, database administrators, product managers, web content managers.

Information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) in Academic

Information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) are often considered synonymous. In reality, information technology is a subset of information systems. The perception that these terms can be used interchangeably can cause confusion for individuals interested in pursuing a technology-related career. Although both these fields deal with computers, they have distinct characteristics and specific career paths that require different education and training.

Information Systems

Information systems is an umbrella term for the systems, people and processes designed to create, store, manipulate, distribute and disseminate information. The field of information systems bridges business and computer science. One of the reasons people may not distinguish between IS and IT is that they assume all information systems are computer-based systems. An information system, however, can be as simple as a pencil and a piece of paper. Separate, the objects are just tools. Used together, they create a system for recording information. Although information systems are heavily reliant on computers and other technology-based tools, the term predates computers and can include non-technological systems.

A degree in information systems often includes courses in:

  • Information Theory
  • Foundations of Management
  • Social Science
  • Information Technology

Careers in information systems can include a variety of fields, such as actuarial sciences, analytics and programming, communications, computer security and auditing.

Information Technology

Information technology falls under the IS umbrella but deals with the technology involved in the systems themselves. Information technology can be defined as the study, design, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems.

IT typically includes hardware, software, databases and networks. Information technology often governs the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of digitized information, or data, generated through the disciplines of computing and telecommunications. Information technology focuses on managing technology and improving its utilization to advance the overall business goals.

A career in information technology often requires a degree in computer or information science and can offer several career paths, such as cybersecurity, network or database administration, infrastructure management, business intelligence or enterprise resource planning, computer programming and software development.

Degree programs in information technology typically include courses in:

  • Mathematics
  • Database Design
  • Computer Science and Forensics
  • Programming Languages

Information systems and information technology are growing fields that offer a variety of job options and long-term professional growth. Although these fields are related, individuals who are interested in a technology-related career should understand the differences in order to select educational programs that will prepare them for a career that best matches their skills, interests and goals.

5 Types of Information Systems

1. Transaction Processing Systems
1.1. A transaction processing system provides a way to collect, process, store, display modify or cancel transactions. Most of these systems allow multiple transactions to take place simultaneously. The data that this system collects is usually stored in databases which can be used to produce reports such as billing, wages, inventory summaries, manufacturing schedules, or check registers.
2. Management Information Systems
2.1. A management information system is an information system that uses the data collected by the transaction processing system and uses this data to create reports in a way that managers can use it to make routine business decisions in response to problems. Some of the reports that this information system creates are summary, exception and ad hoc reports. All this is done to increase the efficiency of managerial activity.
3. Decision Support Systems
3.1. A decision support system helps make decisions by working and analyzing data that can generate statistical projections and data models. This system gives support rather than replacing a managers judgement while improving the quality of a managers decision. A DSS helps solve problems while using external data.
4. Expert Systems and Neutral Networks
4.1. An expert system, also known as a knowledge-based system, is a computer system that is designed to analyze data and produce recommendations, diagnosis and decisions that are controlled. A neutral system uses computers to foster the way a human brain may process information, learn and remember that information.
5. Information Systems in Organizations
5.1. This information system collects, stores and processes data to give an organization real time useful and accurate information. This information system encompasses data gathering information from the people and machines that collect, process, output and store data. Also in the networks that transmit and receive data and the procedures that govern the way data is handled.

The Bottom Line

When deciding which of these computer-related paths to pursue, it’s critical to be clear and detailed about exactly what it is you’re looking for in a career. By fully understanding the differences and similarities between information systems and information technology, prospective students can better select an educational path. Gathering data about your prospective field and evaluating it carefully will allow you to make an informed choice about the best career path for you.


Moral dimensions of information:

1) Rights and obligations of information: What are the rights of individuals and corporations about information about themselves? What are the legal means to protect it? And what are the obligations for that information. “These rights include: Privacy is the right of individuals to be left in peace. Technology and information systems threaten the privacy of individuals to make cheap, efficient and effective invasion. Due process requires the existence of a set of rules or laws that clearly define how we treat information about individuals and that appeal mechanisms available.

2) Property rights: how to move the classical concepts of patent and intellectual property in digital technology? What are these rights and how to protect? Information technology has hindered the protection of property because it is very easy to copy or distribute computer information networks. Intellectual property is subject to various protections under three patents: Trade secrets: Any intellectual work product used for business purposes may be classified as secret. Copyright: It is a concession granted by law to protect creators of intellectual property against copying by others for any purpose for a period of 28 years. Patents: A patent gives the holder, for 17 years, an exclusive monopoly on the ideas on which an invention

3) Responsibility and control: Who is responsible and who controls the use and abuse of information from the People. The new information technologies are challenging existing laws regarding liability and social practices, to force individuals and institutions accountable for their actions Five Moral dimensions of information Age

4) Quality systems: What data standards, information processing programs should be required to ensure the protection of individual rights and society? It can hold individuals and organizations for avoidable and foreseeable consequences if their obligation is to see and correct

5) Quality of life: What values should be preserved and protected in a society based on information and knowledge? What institutions should protect and which should be protected? The negative social costs of introducing information technologies and systems are growing along with the power of technology. Computers and information technologies can destroy valuable elements of culture and society, while providing benefits


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