Informatics is the science of information and computer information systems. As an academic field it involves the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. The field considers the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organisations, technologies and systems. It also develops its own conceptual and theoretical foundations and utilizes foundations developed in other fields. As such, the field of informatics has great breadth and encompasses many individual specializations, including disciplines of computer science, information systems, information technology and statistics. Since the advent of computers, individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally. This has led to the study of informatics with computational, mathematical, biological, cognitive and social aspects, including study of the social impact of information technologies.
Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.
Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory (which explores the fundamental properties of computational and intractable problems), are highly abstract, while fields such as computer graphics emphasize real-world visual applications. Other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, while the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans.
An information system (IS) is any organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data.
"An information system (IS) is a group of components that interact to produce information."
A computer information system is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information. The term is also sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to only the software used to run a computerized database or to refer to only a computer system.
Information systems is an academic study of systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data. An emphasis is placed on an information system having a definitive boundary, users, processors, storage, inputs, outputs and the aforementioned communication networks.
Any specific information system aims to support operations, management and decision-making. An information system is the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, and also the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.
Some authors make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems, and business processes. Information systems typically include an ICT component but are not purely concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end use of information technology. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.
Alter argues for advantages of viewing an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans or machines perform processes and activities using resources to produce specific products or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying information.
As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.
Information systems are the primary focus of study for organizational informatics.
Information technology (IT) is the application of computers to store, study, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). In 2012, Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level "contain[s] some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications."
The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.
Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.
Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC – 1450 AD), mechanical (1450–1840), electromechanical (1840–1940), electronic (1940–present). This article focuses on the most recent period (electronic), which began in about 1940.
The terminology is therefore intended to indicate a broader approach than that taken by the more techno-centric definitions of either Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), which focuses on use of ICTs for delivery of specific development goals, or Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD), which looks at use of ICTs in developing countries.
The main network for those active in development informatics is the International Development Informatics Association, which organises conferences and publications in the field.
Rapid developments in data availability call for innovative approaches to longstanding questions related to government and politics. We are of the view that interdisciplinary collaborations hold the key to important advances, but also recognize that identifying projects that serve the research objectives of scholars from different fields can be challenging.
PoliInformatics seeks to leverage advances in computer science, machine learning (broadly defined) and data visualization to facilitate discovery in large structured and unstructured government datasets. One of our central objectives is promote interdisciplinary conversations leading to collaborative research opportunities involving social scientists, journalists, and information and computer scientists.
Our Steering Committee includes experts in legal informatics, political science, machine learning, political economics, communication, information science, data journalism, electrical engineering, statistics, visualization, and information systems.
The PoliInformatics Research Coordination Network (RCN) is called PiNet. We will be sharing information on this site and on the PiNet Wiki . Please look for more information about forthcoming Research Competitions in Autumn 2013, or contact us so that we can add you to our mailing list.
Cutting-edge research in interdisciplinary political science increasingly employs technologically sophisticated methods to analyse multiple sources of large-scale data. You will exploit the growing availability of open-source data to study trends in socio-economic context, consumption and values and their effects on political behaviour, using advanced data collection, analysis and visualisation techniques. Such core substantive interests will form the basis for bids as a PI, leading to a £500k+ core project bid to a major funding body, as well as cross-Faculty collaboration on a Horizon 2020 bid.You will play a key role alongside and in collaboration with colleagues in the School of Politics and International Studies (POLIS) with quantitative expertise and interests. You will be well positioned to link between POLIS and the Leeds Institute for Data Analytics. You will also have the potential to work with the School of Geography and the Centre for Spatial Analysis and Policy, which contains a number of researchers with interests in political behaviour and spatial analytics, as well as the ESRC TALISMAN node.There is also scope for links with the School of Media and Communication, on social media analytics, and the School of Computing, on data visualisation. In POLIS’s teaching portfolio, you will contribute to core provision in analytical skills development for both UGs and PGs, including core methods at level 2, and the introduction of appropriate tools for empirical research beyond basic statistical knowledge – programming environments, GIS, social media analytics, etc.With expertise in social science informatics and a substantive focus on political behaviour, you will have, as essential: (1) strong expertise in Python, webscraping, social media analytics; (2) expertise in applied social science informatics, e.g. GIS, network analysis; (3) expertise in statistical methods (Stata and/or R); (4) at least two lead-authored papers in international peer-reviewed journals, preferably cross-disciplinary; (5) evidence of having secured pilot funding or a small research grant.
Parliamentary informatics is the application of information technology to the documentation of legislative activity. The principal areas of concern are the provision, in a form conveniently readable to humans or machines, of information and statistics about:
Parliamentary informatics is carried on both by officials of legislatures and by private for-profit and non-profit actors, with motivations ranging from the administration of parliaments to lobbying and facilitating democratic discourse.
The division of activities between official and unofficial activity differs widely between polities, even within a single country. There exists substantial overlap with disciplines such as psephology and, as far as the text of successfully enacted legislation is concerned, legal informatics in general.
The use of parliamentary informatics is also a rapidly growing trend in parliamentary monitoring. In a September 2011, joint report from the National Democratic Institute and World Bank Institute, a survey of parliamentary monitoring organisations (PMOs) found that parliamentary informatics are used by approximately 40 percent of PMOs worldwide. The report states, "These tools can automatically aggregate and organize information from parliamentary websites and other information sources, generate visualizations (such as political finance maps), and create new platforms for citizens to interact with MPs or participate in parliamentary monitoring and policy analysis.
Community informatics (CI), also known as community networking, electronic community networking, community-based technologies, community technology or grassroots computing refers to an emerging field of investigation and practice concerned with information and communication technology (ICT) in relation to communities and their social, cultural, service development, economic and other dimensions. It is formally located as an academic discipline within a variety of academic faculties including information science, information systems, computer science, planning, development studies, and library science among others and draws on insights on community development from a range of backgrounds and disciplines. It is an interdisciplinary approach interested in using ICTs for different forms of community action, as distinct from pure academic study about ICT effects. It is the application of information and communication technology to enable and empower community processes.
Business informatics (BI) or organizational informatics is a discipline combining information technology (IT), informatics and management concepts. BI integrates core elements from the disciplines of business administration, information systems and computer science into one field.
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by, Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011). Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has received), and transformation (saved effort of questioning – equivocation minus dissipation) (Denning and Bell, 2012).
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.
Pervasive informatics is the study of how information affects interactions with the built environments they occupy. The built environment is rich with information which can be utilised by its occupants to enhance the quality of their work and life. By introducing ICT systems, this information can be created, managed, distributed and consumed more effectively, leading to more advanced interactions between users and the environment. The social interactions in these spaces are of additional value, and Informatics can effectively capture the complexities of such information rich activities. Information literally pervades, or spreads throughout, these socio-technical systems, and pervasive informatics aims to study, and assist in the design of, pervasive information environments, or pervasive spaces, for the benefit of their stakeholders and users.
IT strategy (information technology strategy) is a comprehensive plan that outlines how technology should be used to meet IT and business goals. An IT strategy, also called a technology strategy or IT/technology strategic plan, is a written document that details the multiple factors that affect the organization's investment in and use of technology.
It should cover all facets of technology management, including cost management, human capital management, hardware and software management, vendor management and risk management.
Executing an IT strategy requires strong IT leadership; the chief information officer (CIO) and chief technology officer (CTO) need to work closely with business, budget and legal departments as well as with other lines of business and user groups to achieve its success.
Organizations formalize their IT strategy in a written document or balanced scorecard strategy map. The plan and its documentation should be flexible enough to change in response to new organizational circumstances, market and industry conditions, business priorities and objectives, budgetary constraints, available skill sets and core competencies, technology advances, and user needs.
Basics of an IT strategy
A strong IT strategy provides a blueprint of how technology supports and shapes the organization's overall business strategy. Its strategic goals should mirror business projects (aka business alignment) and take into account the needs of key stakeholders including employees, customers and business partners.
The strategy should offer a look at the organization's current technology posture and provide an idea of where IT should head over the next three to five years.
There are different models that help executives construct an IT strategy, yet most contain certain key elements including:
A high-level overview of the IT department that covers its mission, core values, objectives and approaches to accomplishing its goals.
Current budgets and spending forecasts for a multiyear timeline.
An outline of current and future IT projects and initiatives with timelines and milestones.
A catalog of existing enterprise architecture; IT department capabilities and capacities; and future needs and requirements with details about infrastructure, staffing and other necessary resources.
An analysis of IT's strengths and weaknesses.
A list of the internal and external forces (such as market and industry trends) that shape current technology requirements and innovations as well as the future forces expected to shape IT.
A prediction of the potential opportunities and vulnerabilities that will necessitate technology responses to best position the organization for success.
رشته انفورماتیک (به انگلیسی: Informatics) علم اطلاعات و پردازش اطلاعات و مهندسی سامانههای اطلاعاتی است. انفورماتیک ساختار و الگوریتمها و رفتار و اثر متقابل سیستمهای مصنوعی و طبیعی که به دنبال ذخیرهسازی و پردازش و دسترسی و نقل و انتقال اطلاعات را بررسی میکند همچنین مطالعات تقابل انسان و رایانه را نیز مورد بررسی قرار میدهد.
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