Fadak - Informatics - Informatics: Introduction and Concepts: Seyed Mahdi Soheili Moghadam
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Informatics: Introduction and Concepts: Seyed Mahdi Soheili Moghadam

  1. Informatics by Michael Fourman
    1. Informatics
    2. The scope of Informatics
  2. Informatics
    1. Computer Science vs Information Science
    2. Informatics
    3. Computer science
    4. Information systems
    5. Information technology
    6. Development informatics
    7. PoliInformatics
    8. Political Science Informatics
    9. Parliamentary informatics
    10. Community informatics
    11. Business informatics (BI) or organizational informatics
    12. Information processing
    13. Statistics
    14. Pervasive informatics
    15. Subfields of informatics
    16. انفورماتیک
      1. Engineering informatics
      2. Computational informatics
      3. Education informatics
      4. Health informatics
      5. Community informatics
      6. Business informatics

Informatics by Michael Fourman


informatics Informatics is the science of information. It studies the representation, processing, and communication of information in natural and artificial systems. Since computers, individuals and organizations all process information, informatics has computational, cognitive and social aspects. Used as a compound, in conjunction with the name of a discipline, as in medical informatics, bio-informatics, etc., it denotes the specialization of informatics to the management and processing of data, information and knowledge in the named discipline.

The scope of Informatics

What these areas have in common is informatics: the focus on information and how it is represented in, processed by, and communicated between a variety of systems. Representations include paper, analogue, and digital records of text, sounds and images, as well as, for instance, the information represented in a gene, and the memories of an individual or an organization. Processing includes human reasoning, digital computation, and organizational processes. Communication includes human communication and the human-computer interface - with speech and gesture, with text and diagram, as well as computer communications and networking, which may use radio, optical or electrical signals.
Informatics studies the interaction of information with individuals and organizations, as well as the
fundamentals of computation and computability, and the hardware and software technologies used to store, process and communicate digitised information. It includes the study of communication as a process that links people together, to affect the behaviour of individuals and organizations.



Computer Science vs Information Science

Computer science: The study of complex systems, information and computation using applied mathematics, electrical engineering and software engineering techniques.
Information science : Information science, the study of the processing, management, and retrieval of information.
Informatics (academic field): a broad academic field encompassing human-computer interaction, information science, information technology, algorithms, areas of mathematics (especially mathematical logic and category theory), and social sciences that are involved.
Information technology, the study, design, development, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems Information technology.
Difference Between Computer Science & Information Technology
 Information Systems vs. Information Technology – Florida Tech Online

What is the difference between information science and information technology?


Informatics is the science of information and computer information systems. As an academic field it involves the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. The field considers the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organisations, technologies and systems. It also develops its own conceptual and theoretical foundations and utilizes foundations developed in other fields. As such, the field of informatics has great breadth and encompasses many individual specializations, including disciplines of computer science, information systems, information technology and statistics. Since the advent of computers, individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally. This has led to the study of informatics with computational, mathematical, biological, cognitive and social aspects, including study of the social impact of information technologies.

Computer science

Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.

Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory (which explores the fundamental properties of computational and intractable problems), are highly abstract, while fields such as computer graphics emphasize real-world visual applications. Other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, while the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans.

Information systems

An information system (IS) is any organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data.

"An information system (IS) is a group of components that interact to produce information."

A computer information system is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information. The term is also sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to only the software used to run a computerized database or to refer to only a computer system.

Information systems is an academic study of systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data. An emphasis is placed on an information system having a definitive boundary, users, processors, storage, inputs, outputs and the aforementioned communication networks.

Any specific information system aims to support operations, management and decision-making. An information system is the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, and also the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.

Some authors make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems, and business processes. Information systems typically include an ICT component but are not purely concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end use of information technology. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.

Alter argues for advantages of viewing an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans or machines perform processes and activities using resources to produce specific products or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying information.

As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.

Information systems are the primary focus of study for organizational informatics.

Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the application of computers to store, study, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). In 2012, Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level "contain[s] some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications."

The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.

Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.

Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC – 1450 AD), mechanical (1450–1840), electromechanical (1840–1940), electronic (1940–present). This article focuses on the most recent period (electronic), which began in about 1940.

Development informatics

Development informatics is a field of both research and practice focusing on the application of information systems in socio-economic development.

The "informatics" terminology is intended to be a translation of the French "informatique". It indicates a broad and systemic view that encompasses four inter-linked levels:

The terminology is therefore intended to indicate a broader approach than that taken by the more techno-centric definitions of either Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), which focuses on use of ICTs for delivery of specific development goals, or Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD), which looks at use of ICTs in developing countries.

However, it is unclear whether these differences are understood or used in practice.

The main network for those active in development informatics is the International Development Informatics Association, which organises conferences and publications in the field.


Rapid developments in data availability call for innovative approaches to longstanding questions related to government and politics. We are of the view that interdisciplinary collaborations hold the key to important advances, but also recognize that identifying projects that serve the research objectives of scholars from different fields can be challenging.
PoliInformatics seeks to leverage advances in computer science, machine learning (broadly defined) and data visualization to facilitate discovery in large structured and unstructured government datasets. One of our central objectives is promote interdisciplinary conversations leading to collaborative research opportunities involving social scientists, journalists, and information and computer scientists.
Our Steering Committee includes experts in legal informatics, political science, machine learning, political economics, communication, information science, data journalism, electrical engineering, statistics, visualization, and information systems.
The PoliInformatics Research Coordination Network (RCN) is called PiNet. We will be sharing information on this site and on the PiNet Wiki . Please look for more information about forthcoming Research Competitions in Autumn 2013, or contact us so that we can add you to our mailing list.

Political Science Informatics

Cutting-edge research in interdisciplinary political science increasingly employs technologically sophisticated methods to analyse multiple sources of large-scale data. You will exploit the growing availability of open-source data to study trends in socio-economic context, consumption and values and their effects on political behaviour, using advanced data collection, analysis and visualisation techniques. Such core substantive interests will form the basis for bids as a PI, leading to a £500k+ core project bid to a major funding body, as well as cross-Faculty collaboration on a Horizon 2020 bid.You will play a key role alongside and in collaboration with colleagues in the School of Politics and International Studies (POLIS) with quantitative expertise and interests. You will be well positioned to link between POLIS and the Leeds Institute for Data Analytics. You will also have the potential to work with the School of Geography and the Centre for Spatial Analysis and Policy, which contains a number of researchers with interests in political behaviour and spatial analytics, as well as the ESRC TALISMAN node.There is also scope for links with the School of Media and Communication, on social media analytics, and the School of Computing, on data visualisation. In POLIS’s teaching portfolio, you will contribute to core provision in analytical skills development for both UGs and PGs, including core methods at level 2, and the introduction of appropriate tools for empirical research beyond basic statistical knowledge – programming environments, GIS, social media analytics, etc.With expertise in social science informatics and a substantive focus on political behaviour, you will have, as essential: (1) strong expertise in Python, webscraping, social media analytics; (2) expertise in applied social science informatics, e.g. GIS, network analysis; (3) expertise in statistical methods (Stata and/or R); (4) at least two lead-authored papers in international peer-reviewed journals, preferably cross-disciplinary; (5) evidence of having secured pilot funding or a small research grant.

Parliamentary informatics

Parliamentary informatics is the application of information technology to the documentation of legislative activity. The principal areas of concern are the provision, in a form conveniently readable to humans or machines, of information and statistics about:

  • individual legislators
  • particular legislative proposals
  • votes thereon
  • text of legislation

Parliamentary informatics is carried on both by officials of legislatures and by private for-profit and non-profit actors, with motivations ranging from the administration of parliaments to lobbying and facilitating democratic discourse.

The division of activities between official and unofficial activity differs widely between polities, even within a single country. There exists substantial overlap with disciplines such as psephology and, as far as the text of successfully enacted legislation is concerned, legal informatics in general.

The use of parliamentary informatics is also a rapidly growing trend in parliamentary monitoring. In a September 2011, joint report from the National Democratic Institute and World Bank Institute, a survey of parliamentary monitoring organisations (PMOs) found that parliamentary informatics are used by approximately 40 percent of PMOs worldwide. The report states, "These tools can automatically aggregate and organize information from parliamentary websites and other information sources, generate visualizations (such as political finance maps), and create new platforms for citizens to interact with MPs or participate in parliamentary monitoring and policy analysis.

Community informatics

Community informatics (CI), also known as community networking, electronic community networking, community-based technologies, community technology or grassroots computing refers to an emerging field of investigation and practice concerned with information and communication technology (ICT) in relation to communities and their social, cultural, service development, economic and other dimensions. It is formally located as an academic discipline within a variety of academic faculties including information science, information systems, computer science, planning, development studies, and library science among others and draws on insights on community development from a range of backgrounds and disciplines. It is an interdisciplinary approach interested in using ICTs for different forms of community action, as distinct from pure academic study about ICT effects. It is the application of information and communication technology to enable and empower community processes.

Business informatics (BI) or organizational informatics

Business informatics (BI) or organizational informatics is a discipline combining information technology (IT), informatics and management concepts. BI integrates core elements from the disciplines of business administration, information systems and computer science into one field.

Information processing

Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by, Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011). Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has received), and transformation (saved effort of questioning – equivocation minus dissipation) (Denning and Bell, 2012).


Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.[1][2] In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.

Pervasive informatics

Pervasive informatics is the study of how information affects interactions with the built environments they occupy. The built environment is rich with information which can be utilised by its occupants to enhance the quality of their work and life. By introducing ICT systems, this information can be created, managed, distributed and consumed more effectively, leading to more advanced interactions between users and the environment. The social interactions in these spaces are of additional value, and Informatics can effectively capture the complexities of such information rich activities. Information literally pervades, or spreads throughout, these socio-technical systems, and pervasive informatics aims to study, and assist in the design of, pervasive information environments, or pervasive spaces, for the benefit of their stakeholders and users.

Pervasive informatics is the study of how information affects interactions with the built environments they occupy. The term and concept were initially introduced by Professor Kecheng Liu during a keynote speech at the SOLI 2008 international conference.[1]
The built environment is rich with information which can be utilised by its occupants to enhance the quality of their work and life. By introducing ICT systems, this information can be created, managed, distributed and consumed more effectively, leading to more advanced interactions between users and the environment. The social interactions in these spaces are of additional value, and Informatics can effectively capture the complexities of such information rich activities.[2] Information literally pervades, or spreads throughout, these socio-technical systems, and pervasive informatics aims to study, and assist in the design of, pervasive information environments, or pervasive spaces, for the benefit of their stakeholders and users.

1    Pervasive computing
2    Pervasive spaces
3    Theories and techniques
3.1    STS
3.2    Distributed cognition
3.3    CSCW
3.4    Semiotics
4    Trend and future research
5    See also
6    References
7    External links
Pervasive computing
Pervasive informatics may be initially viewed as simply another branch of pervasive, or ubiquitous computing. However, pervasive informatics places a greater emphasis on the ICT-enhanced socio-technical pervasive spaces, as opposed to the technology driven direction of pervasive computing. This distinction between fields is analogous to that of informatics and computing, where Informatics focuses on the study of information, while the primary concern of computing is the processing of information. Pervasive informatics aims to analyse the pervasive nature of information, examining its various representations and transformations in pervasive spaces, which are enabled by pervasive computing technologies e.g. smart devices and intelligent control systems.

Pervasive spaces
A pervasive space is characterised by the physical and informational interaction between the occupants and the built environment e.g. the act of controlling the building is a physical interaction, while the space responding to this action/user instruction is an informational interaction.

Intelligent pervasive spaces are those that display intelligent behaviour in the form of adaptation to user requirements or the environment itself. Such intelligent behaviour can be implemented using artificial intelligence algorithms and agent-based technologies. These intelligent spaces aim to provide communication and computing services to their occupants in such a way that the experience is almost transparent e.g. automated control of heating and ventilation based on occupant preference profiles.[2]

The term first appeared in an IBM Research Report [3] but was not properly defined or discussed until later. An intelligent pervasive space is a “social and physical space with enhanced capability through ICT for human to interact with the built environments” [1] An alternative definition is “an adaptable and dynamic area that optimises user services and management processes using information systems and networked ubiquitous technologies”.[4] A common point between these definitions is that pervasive computing technologies are the means by which intelligence and interactions are achieved in pervasive spaces, with the purpose of enhancing a users experience.

Theories and techniques
Historically, there have been few attempts to consolidate approaches to studying the complex interplay between occupants and the built environment, and to assist in the design of pervasive information environments. Many theoretical interdisciplinary approaches are relevant to the design of effective pervasive spaces. A core concept in pervasive informatics is the range of interactions that may occur in pervasive spaces: people to people, people to the physical and the physical space to technological artefacts such as sensors. In order to study these interactions it is necessary to have an understanding of what information is being created and exchanged. In light of this, a series of theories which enable us to consider both social and technological interactions together form the foundations of pervasive informatics [2]

Socio-technical systems provide an approach which assists in understanding and supporting the use of pervasive technologies. The space could be considered as a network of artefacts, information, technology and occupants. By adopting STS approaches, a means for dynamically investigating and mapping such networks becomes possible.

Distributed cognition
Distributed cognition can be used to explain how information is passed and processed, with a focus on both interactions between people, in addition to their interactions with the environment.[5] These interactions are analysed in terms of the trajectories of information.

Human interactions with a space, and its effect on coordination mechanisms have been examined in the field of computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). The concepts of media spaces[6] and awareness have also emerged from CSCW which are of relevance to pervasive informatics.

Semiotics, the study of signs, can be used to assess the effectiveness of a built environment from six different levels: physical, empirical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic and social. Semiotics enables us to understanding the nature and characteristics of sign-based interactions in pervasive spaces.

Trend and future research
The current technology-centred view of pervasive computing is no longer sufficient for studying the information in the built environment. Socio-technical approaches are required to direct attention to the interaction between the built environment and its occupants. The concept of pervasive informatics then captures this shift, and enables current research efforts in different fields to converge their focus and consolidate their methods under one label, leading to a better direction and understanding of this complex domain. Research issues identified for further study in pervasive informatics:

Understanding the impacts of intelligent pervasive spaces and enabling technologies on occupants [7]
Designing organisations as pervasive information systems—the role of information and artefacts in communication and interaction.
Context-dependent information and knowledge management, towards effective decision support in pervasive spaces.
Service-oriented design of intelligent buildings as adaptive and learning information spaces with regards to norms and emerging practices in intelligent pervasive spaces.
Through-life intelligent support in building management, with a better understanding of the lifecycle of pervasive spaces from the conception, design, implementation, utilisation till recycling to achieve the building performance and sustainability.
The list, of course, is not exhaustive, but they all address the issues that lie on the boundaries between the physical, informational and social-capturing the essence of pervasive spaces.[2]







Subfields of informatics

  1. Social informatics
  2. Community informatics
  3. Development informatics
  4. Legal informatics
  5. Education informatics
  6. Evolutionary informatics
  7. Environmental informatics
  8. Pervasive Informatics
  9. Archival informatics
  10. Astroinformatics
  11. Bioinformatics
  12. Bioimage informatics
  13. Biodiversity informatics
  14. Business informatics
  15. Cheminformatics
  16. Computational informatics
  17. Disease informatics
  18. Energy informatics
  19. Engineering Informatics
  20. Forest informatics
  21. Geoinformatics
  22. Health informatics
  23. Consumer health informatics
  24. Public health informatics
  25. Imaging informatics
  26. Hydroinformatics
  27. Irrigation informatics
  28. Laboratory informatics
  29. Materials informatics
  30. Medical informatics
  31. Music informatics
  32. Neuroinformatics
  33. Technical informatics
  34. Translational research informatics
  35. Urban informatics


رشته انفورماتیک (به انگلیسی: Informatics) علم اطلاعات و پردازش اطلاعات و مهندسی سامانه‌های اطلاعاتی است. انفورماتیک ساختار و الگوریتم‌ها و رفتار و اثر متقابل سیستم‌های مصنوعی و طبیعی که به دنبال ذخیره‌سازی و پردازش و دسترسی و نقل و انتقال اطلاعات را بررسی می‌کند همچنین مطالعات تقابل انسان و رایانه را نیز مورد بررسی قرار می‌دهد.

Engineering informatics

Engineering Informatics is an engineering discipline ...

Computational informatics

Computational informatics is a subfield of informatics that ...

Education informatics

Education Informatics is a sub-field of informatics. The primary focus ...

Health informatics

Health informatics is informatics in health care. It is a ...

Community informatics

Community informatics (CI) is an interdisciplinary field that is ...

Business informatics

Business informatics (BI) or organizational informatics is a ...

Поиск в Google


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