Fadak - Linux - Linux Tutorial & Debian Tutorial
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Linux Tutorial & Debian Tutorial

  1. Search Packages
  2. Shell Commands & Search files and folders in Linux
    1. Search in Linux
  3. Fuzzy finder
  4. File manger
  5. Catfish
  6. Find
  7. Locate
  8. Grep
  9. Console
  10. Recoll
  11. How to Install CentOS and RPM Packages with terminal commands
    1. Hardware information
    2. How To Add The Remi, EPEL And RPMFusion Repositories On CentOS 7
    3. CentOS-7 "Minimal Desktop" installation GNOME
    4.  VI
    5. How install Repository
  12. insmod
  13. Commandline in Grub
    1. Grub GUI
    2. How To Configure GRUB2 Boot Loader Settings
    3. How Boot Windows through Grub
    4. How Boot Windows through Grub
  14. Remove Old Unused Kernels on Debian and Ubuntu
  15. Reference sites on Linux (Debian, Ubuntu and Fedora St Aus ...)
    1. Debian & ubontu
    2. Fedora & CentOs
    3. Command Line
    4. Debian & CentOS & Ubuntu
      1. Debian GNU/Linux
      2. CentOS
      3. Ubuntu
  16. How to Autorun application at the start up in Linux
  17. How install and run application in linux
  18. Eject / safely remove vs umount
  19. *.ISO
  20. Compress
    1. Automatically Mount USB Drives On Ubuntu Or Debian Server ...
      1. fstab
    2. fstab
    3. Auto Mount
  21. Installing and Removing software - Debian
  22. How install offline debian
  23. Affairs Than Debian After Install
  24. Night Mode
    1. Change Xfce Theme from bash script
    2. Xfce4 - Deactive rolling in of window - disable xfce roll-up windows with mousewheel
    3. Disabling mouse-wheel window-shading in XFce?
    4. Hideen shade in xfce
    5. Redshift
  25. Network
    1. nmcli
    2. gammu
    3. Install Modem DLink
  26. Call time
  27. festival --tts
  28. xfconf
  29. cron
  30. udisksctl
  31. xrandr
  32. systemctl
  33. Android
  34. Devive Manager
    1. winefile
  35. MYSQL & PHP &
    1. Restart services in linux(debian)
  • Samba
    1. Samba GUI page
  • Other
  • Office
  • 20 Best FREE YouTube Playlist Downloader Online (2020)
  • Religion
  • Dolphin
  • Xfce
    1. Thunar
  • Xfce Very important (terminal)
    1. Back Up The XFCE4
  • LibreOffice
  • Midori
  • SSH
  • rsync
  • crontab
  • PATH
    1. XFCE
  • Modem
    1. mmcli
    2. gammu
  • Display manager (desktop login screen)
    1. nodm
      1. Terminal
      2. Open Whisker Menu with Win key
    2. جستجو در پرونده و پوشه‌ها
      1. Flocate
      2. catfish
      3. FSearch
  • ntfs-g3
  • Link
    1. Speaking Clock
    2. cron
    3. xfce4-power-manager - Panel Plugin
    4. Geany
    5. Settings Keyboard
  • دانلود و اجرای بسته‌ها
    1. Skype
  • Network
    1. مدیریت پروژه(Project Management Software)
  • Telegram linux
  • OCR
  • How to Compress PDF in Linux [GUI & Terminal] - It's FOSS
  • Run Two or More Terminal Commands at Once in Linux
    1. raspbian
    2. List Network Interfaces in Debian
    3. How to check the health of a hard drive

  • Search Packages

    Debian -- Package Search Results -- tesseract-ocr-eng

    Shell Commands & Search files and folders in Linux

    Search in Linux

    • Best software for search file and content file's:
      • searcher only:
        • catfish(GUI only interface, use search with methods in system)
        • find
        • searchmonkey(GUI)
        • gnome-search-tool(GUI)
        • grep
      • searcher by engine(indexing, Database):
        • locate
        • Strigi (Linux, Unix, Solaris, Mac OS X and Windows  Cross-platform open source desktop search engine)
        • Tracker (Open Source desktop search tool for Unix/Linux)
        • recoll(GUI , Open Source desktop search tool for Unix/Linux)

    Fuzzy finder

    GitHub - junegunn/fzf: A command-line fuzzy finder

    File manger

    FileManager - Debian Wiki


    catfish --fileman=nautilus --path=/ --hidden --method=locate
    sudo geany /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/catfish/CatfishWindow.py

    for dolphin or nautilis edit with this lines

    if self.get_exo_preferred_file_manager() == "nautilus":
    command = ['nautilus', '--select', self.selected_filenames[0]]
    elif self.get_exo_preferred_file_manager() == "dolphin":
    command = ['dolphin', '--select', self.selected_filenames[0]]
    command = ['exo-open', '--launch', 'FileManager', filename]
    command = ['xdg-open', filename]

    for thunar

    os.popen('dbus-send --type=method_call --dest=org.xfce.Thunar /org/xfce/FileManager org.xfce.FileManager.DisplayFolderAndSelect string:"'+os.path.dirname(filename)+'" string:"'+os.path.basename(self.selected_filenames[0])+'" string:"" string:""')

    sudo geany /usr/share/applications/org.xfce.Catfish.desktop
    Exec=/usr/bin/catfish --method=locate --path=/ --hidden %f

    Add follow line after this «self.settings.get_setting("exclude-paths"))»

    if self.options.method == 'locate': self.search_engine = CatfishSearchEngine(['locate'],self.settings.get_setting("exclude-paths"))

    Add in this file /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/catfish/__init__.py

    sudo geany /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/catfish/__init__.py

    parser.add_option('', '--method', help=_("Set the default search method ex. 'zeitgeist' or 'locate' or 'walk'"))

    For Thunar

    dbus-send --type=method_call --dest=org.xfce.Thunar /org/xfce/FileManager org.xfce.FileManager.DisplayFolderAndSelect string:"/home/m/.clamtk/" string:"prefs.txt" string:"" string:""

    How can I open thunar so that it selects specific file? - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange

    Thunar - ArchWiki


    • Find from root path:
      $ find / -name "index.html"
      $ find /  -name '*.mkv'
    • Find from current path:
      $ find . -name "index.html"
    • For search in text
      $ grep -r 'text' /


    for edit config in locate This file:
    for update indexing this file:
    # updatedb

    7 Practical Linux Locate Command Examples – mlocate and updatedb
    Linux Locate Command for Beginners (8 Examples)
    GitHub - ehoppmann/mlocate-web: Very simple file search web interface with a locate / mlocate backend
    updatedb & locate command problem - Files from external hard drive are no longer indexed after rebooting - Ask Ubuntu
    FindingFiles - Community Help Wiki
    debian squeeze - How can I view updatedb database content, and then exclude certain files/paths? - Server Fault


    Although grep command is not a tool for directly searching files (its instead used to print lines matching a pattern from one or more files), you can employ it to locate files. Assuming you know a phrase in the file(s) you are looking for or you are looking for a file that contains a particular string of characters, grep can help you list all files that contain a particular phrase.
    For example, if you are looking for a README.md file which contains the phrase “An assortment”, which you suspect should be somewhere in your home directory, possibly in ~/bin, you can locate it as shown.
    $ grep -Ri ~/bin -e "An assortment"
    $ grep -Ri ~/bin/ -e "An assortment" | cut -d: -f1


    history: Command History #rm ~/.bash_history or # history -c

    awk '!x[$0]++' ~/.bash_history > te.txt
    cat .bash_history nl|sort -k 2|uniq -f 1|sort -n|cut -f 2 > te.txt
    history > te.txt


    history -n reads all lines from $HISTFILE that may have occurred in a different terminal since the last carriage return
    history -w writes the updated buffer to $HISTFILE
    history -c wipes the buffer so no duplication occurs
    history -r re-reads the $HISTFILE, appending to the now blank buffer

    bash - How can I remove duplicates in my .bash_history, preserving order? - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange


    • Database is


        alias: Create an alias
        awk: Find and Replace text within file(s)
        basename: Return just the file name alone
        bzip2/bunzip2: Compress or decompress named file(s)
        cat: Display the contents of a file
        cat -n: simple way to add line-numbers to the output of a command
        cd: Change Directory
        chgrp: Change group ownership
        chmod: Change access permissions
        chown: Change file owner and group
        chroot: Run a command with a different root directory
        clear: Clear terminal screen
        cmp: Compare two files
        comm: Compare two sorted files line by line
        cp Copy one or more files to another location
        crontab: Schedule a command to run at a later time
        date: Display or change the date & time
        dc: Desk Calculator
        dd: Data Dump - Convert and copy a file
        df: Display free disk space
        diff: Display the differences between two files
        dir: Briefly list directory contents
        dircolors: Colour setup for ls
        dirname: Convert a full pathname to just a path
        dmesg: Output is from the kernel booting, showing the devices it has found and if it has been able to configure them at all (aside from userland configuration).
        du: Estimate file space usage
        echo: Display message on screen
        egrep: Print lines matching a pattern (same as grep -E)
        eject: Eject CD-ROM
        env: Display, set, or remove environment variables
        exit: Exit the shell (or press Ctrl-D)
        export: Set an environment variable
        fdisk: Partition table manipulator for Linux
        fgrep: Print lines matching a pattern (same as grep -F)
        file: Tells what kind of files are those listed on command line
        find: Search for files that meet a desired criteria
        for: Expand words, and execute commands
        format: Format disks or tapes
        free: Display memory usage
        fsck: Filesystem consistency check and repair.
        ftp: Transfer/receive files from/to a remote host
        grep: Print lines matching a pattern
        groups: Print group names a user is in
        gzip/gunzip: Compress or decompress named file(s)
        head: Output the first part of file(s)
        history: Command History #rm ~/.bash_history or # history -c
        hostname: Print or set system name
        id: Print user and group id's
        if/then/else/elif/fi Conditionally perform a command
        info: Help info
        join: Joins lines on a common field
        kill: Stops a process from running
        killall: Stops matching process from running
        less: Display output one screen at a time
        ln: Make links between files
        locate: Find files using an indexed list.
        logname: Print current login name
        logout: Exit a login shell
        lpc: Line printer control program
        lpr: Off line print
        lprint: Print a file
        lprintq: List the print queue
        ls: List information about file(s)
        man: Help manual
        mkdir: Create new folder(s)
        more: Display output one screen at a time
        mount: Mount a file system
        mv: Move or rename files or directories
        nice: Set the priority of a command or job
        passwd: Modify a user password
        printf: Format and print data
        ps: Process Status. Lists running process
        pwd: Print Working Directory
        rgrep: Recursive grep
        rm: Remove file(s)
        rmdir: Remove folder(s)
        rsync: Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees) using its own protocol. It may be used over an ssh or rsh connection.
        scp: Copy files between two machines over an ssh connection
        sdiff: Merge two files interactively
        sed: Stream Editor
        select: Accept keyboard input
        sftp: Secure file transfer (FTP over SSH)
        shutdown: Shutdown or restart Linux
        sleep: Delay for a specified time
        sort: Sort text files
        ssh: Secure Shell
        su: Substitute user identity
        sudo: Execute a command as another user
        sync: Synchronize data on disk with memory
        tail: Output the last part of files
        tar: Tape Archiver
        time: Measure Program Resource Use
        touch: Change file timestamps or create an empty file
        top: List processes running on the system
        traceroute: Trace Route to Host
        tr: Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
        true: Do nothing, successfully
        umask: Users file creation mask
        umount: Unmount a device
        uname: Print system information
        uniq: Uniquify files
        until: Execute commands (until error)
        useradd: Create new user account
        usermod: Modify user account
        users: List users currently logged in
        vdir: Verbosely list directory contents (ls -l -b)
        watch: Execute/display a program periodically
        wc: Print byte, word and line counts
        which: Locate a program file in the user's path.
        who: Print all usernames currently logged in
        whoami: Print the current user id and name (`id -un')
        xargs: Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)

    How to Install CentOS and RPM Packages with terminal commands

    dhclient eth0
    vi /etc/yum.conf
    yum install epel-release -y
    yum grouplist
    yum groupinstall Desktop
    yum groupinstall "X window Seyetem"
    yum groupinstall xfce

    Hardware information

    $ lscpu


    lspci -v | grep "VGA" -A 12


    lshw -short


    sudo fdisk -l

    mount | column -t

    How To Add The Remi, EPEL And RPMFusion Repositories On CentOS 7

    How to add the and enable the EPEL repository on CentOS 7, RHEL 7 and SL 7:
    $ sudo yum install epel-release
    How to add and enable the Remi repository on CentOS 7, RHEL 7 and SL 7:
    $ sudo yum install http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/remi-release-7.rpm
    $ sudo sed -i 's/enabled=0/enabled=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/remi.repo
    How to add the RPMFusion repository on CentOS 7, RHEL 7 and SL 7:
    $ sudo yum install http://pkgs.repoforge.org/rpmforge-release/rpmforge-release-0.5.3-1.el7.rf.x86_64.rpm

    # wget http://pkgs.repoforge.org/rpmforge-release/rpmforge-release-0.5.3-1.el7.rf.x86_64.rpm
    # rpm -Uvh rpmforge-release-0.5.3-1.el7.rf.x86_64.rpm

    CentOS-7 "Minimal Desktop" installation GNOME

    CentOS7 Minimal Desktop Installation you can do following steps:
    1. Install CentOS-7 - Minimal (First entry point in list)
    2. yum groupinstall "X Window System"
    3. yum install gnome-classic-session gnome-terminal nautilus-open-terminal control-center liberation-mono-fonts
    4. unlink /etc/systemd/system/default.target
    5. ln -sf /lib/systemd/system/graphical.target /etc/systemd/system/default.target
    6. reboot
    Now you have a CentOS-7 Minimal Desktop installation LIKE CentOS-6 Minimal Desktop


    Key insert and change text then type ":wq"
    Shourtkey in Terminal
    Shift + PageUp
    Shift + Pagedown
    Alt + <
    Alt + >

    How install Repository

    # yum install epel-release or yum install https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm
    # yum install http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/rpm/rhel/virtualbox.repo
    # yum install ntfs-3g ntfsprogs
    yum install gimp simple-scan vlc geany wine ffmpeg clamav thunderbird xchat kdepim
    Пакет rsync-3.0.9-17.el7.x86_64 уже установлен, и это последняя версия.
    Пакета с названием qalculate-gtk не найдено.
    # yum install http://li.nux.ro/download/nux/dextop/el7/x86_64/nux-dextop-release-0-5.el7.nux.noarch.rpm


    cp '/media/m/Sharing/m/DTLWA_D310A_linux_v7.0.3WW_151014.tar.gz' /home
    tar -xf DTLWA_D310A_linux_v7.0.3WW_151014.tar.gz
    mount /dev/sr0 /mnt
    cp '/mnt/DTLWA_D310A_linux_v7.0.3WW_151014.tar.gz' /home
    apt install insmod
    ls /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel
    apt install tree
    /lib/modules/$(uname -r)
    adduser m sudo
    cd /
    cd sbin
    apt install kmod

    Commandline in Grub

    GNU GRUB Manual 2.04

    Grub GUI

    sudo apt-get install grub-customizer

    How To Configure GRUB2 Boot Loader Settings

    sudo cp /etc/default/grub /etc/default/grub.bak
    sudo nano /boot/grub/grub.cfg
    sudo nano /etc/default/grub

    GRUB_DEFAULT="Advanced options for Debian GNU/Linux>Debian GNU/Linux, with Linux 5.10.0-2-amd64"
    sudo update-grub

    How Boot Windows through Grub

    set root='hd0,msdos1'
    chainloader +1

    How Boot Windows through Grub

    chainloader (hd0,1) +1


    insmod chain
    insmod ntfs
    set root=(hd0,1)
    chainloader +1

    If the os-prober method above doesn't work try to add a custom grub menu entry
    documented here edit the /etc/grub.d/40_custom file
    menuentry "Windows 7" {  
         insmod ntfs  
         set root='(hd0,1)'  
         search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set a3f1ea41fc67a3f1  
         chainloader +1  

    sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
    sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

    Append the following lines at the end of file
    title        Microsoft Windows
    root        (hd0,0)
    chainloader    +1

     parttool (hd0,1) hidden-
    parttool (hd0,2) hidden+
    set root=(hd0,1)
    chainloader +1
    parttool ${root} boot+

    drivemap -s (hd0) (hd1)


    grub2 - How do I change the GRUB boot order? - Ask Ubuntu

    Remove Old Unused Kernels on Debian and Ubuntu

    $ sudo apt remove --purge linux-image-4.4.0-21-generic
    $ sudo update-grub2
    $ sudo reboot

    Reference sites on Linux (Debian, Ubuntu and Fedora St Aus ...)


    Debian & ubontu

    Help Text:






    Fedora & CentOs


    Command Line



    Debian & CentOS & Ubuntu

    Debian GNU/Linux

       OS Type: Linux
        На основе: Independent
        Происхождение: Global
        Архитектура: arm64, armel, armhf, i386, mips, mipsel, powerpc, ppc64el, s390x, x86_64
        Рабочий стол: AfterStep, Awesome, Blackbox, Cinnamon, Fluxbox, flwm, FVWM, GNOME, i3, IceWM, ion, JWM, KDE, LXDE, MATE, Openbox, pekwm, Ratpoison, Razor-qt, WMaker, XBMC, Xfce
        Категория: Desktop, Live Medium, Server
        Статус: Активная
        Популярность: 2 (1,681 хитов в день)
    The Debian Project is an association of individuals who have made common cause to create a free operating system. This operating system is called Debian GNU/Linux, or simply Debian for short. Debian systems currently use the Linux kernel. Linux is a completely free piece of software started by Linus Torvalds and supported by thousands of programmers worldwide. Of course, the thing that people want is application software: programs to help them get what they want to do done, from editing documents to running a business to playing games to writing more software. Debian comes with over 50,000 packages (precompiled software that is bundled up in a nice format for easy installation on your machine) - all of it free. It's a bit like a tower. At the base is the kernel. On top of that are all the basic tools. Next is all the software that you run on the computer. At the top of the tower is Debian -- carefully organizing and fitting everything so it all works together. 


        OS Type: Linux
        На основе: Fedora, Red Hat
        Происхождение: USA
        Архитектура: i386, x86_64
        Рабочий стол: GNOME, KDE
        Категория: Desktop, Live Medium, Server
        Статус: Активная
        Популярность: 7 (984 хитов в день)
    CentOS как группа - это сообщество контрибьюторов и пользователей из мира опенсорс. Типичными пользователями CentOS являются организации и отдельные люди, которым не нужна серьёзная коммерческая поддержка для успешной работы. CentOS - это 100%-совместимый пересобранный Red Hat Enterprise Linux, полностью удовлетворяющий требованиям Red Hat по дальнейшему распространению. CentOS предназначена для людей, которым нужна стабильность операционной системы промышленного класса без дорогостоящей сертификации и технической поддержки.


        OS Type: Linux
        На основе: Debian, Ubuntu
        Происхождение: Isle of Man
        Архитектура: armhf, i686, powerpc, ppc64el, x86_64
        Рабочий стол: Unity
        Категория: Beginners, Desktop, Server, Live Medium
        Статус: Активная
        Популярность: 3 (1,651 хитов в день)
    Ubuntu Linux - это полноценная настольная операционная система Linux, свободно распространяемая и с наличием поддержки как со стороны сообщества, так и профессионалов. Сообщество Ubuntu построено на идеях, изложенных в Ubuntu Manifesto: программное обеспечение должно быть бесплатным, программные средства должны быть пригодными для использования людьми на их родном языке и должны пренебрегать любыми их физическими недостатками, люди должны быть свободны в настройке и изменении своего программного обеспечения любым удобным для них способом. "Ubuntu" - это древнее африканское слово, означающее "гуманность к остальным". Дистрибутив Linux Ubuntu приносит дух Ubuntu в мир программного обеспечения.

    How to Autorun application at the start up in Linux

    This article describes how to automatically start an application during or after boot of a Colibri module running Embedded Linux.
    You can easily start your scripts or applications as daemons.
    A daemon is an application that runs as a "background" process (without a terminal or user interface).
    Starting with V2.x of our Linux BSP we use systemd as our init and service manager.
    systemd is a system and service manager for Linux, also capable of replacing the traditional SysV init system.
    A unit configuration file whose name ends in .service encodes information about a process controlled and supervised by systemd.
    Service files can be found in /etc/systemd/system/ and, for distribution provided ones in /lib/systemd/system/. Services can be started or permanently enabled using the systemctl command.
    The common configuration items are configured in the generic "[Unit]" and "[Install]" sections. The service specific configuration options are configured in the "[Service]" section.
    Service files must include a "[Service]" section, which carries information about the service and the process it supervises.
    For more information on options of [Service] section refer to: http://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/systemd.service.html#Options
    Create a unit configuration file ending in .service
    Copy the unit configuration file to "/etc/systemd/system" and use the systemctl tool for starting or permanently enabling the service.
    Using the systemctl command
    From: http://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/systemctl.html
    Reload the systemd configuration and unit files:
    root@colibri-t20:~# systemctl --system daemon-reload
    Check status, start and stop a service, valid until next reboot:
    root@colibri-t20:~# systemctl status .service
    root@colibri-t20:~# systemctl start .service
    root@colibri-t20:~# systemctl stop .service
    Add a service to or remove it from the ones started at boot. Note that this neither starts or stops the service but takes only effect during the next boot:
    root@colibri-t20:~# systemctl enable .service
    root@colibri-t20:~# systemctl disable .service
    Example unit configuration file to automatically execute the (hypothetical) mydatalogger application at start up:
    Description=mydatalogger service, collects and logs data in the background
    Each time a login shell is spawned the script /etc/profile plus all scripts in /etc/profile.d are executed. This is done for logins over a serial line, over an ssh connection and also for logins in the display manager to a graphical desktop.
    /etc/profile is sourced upon login: it sets up the environment upon login and application-specific settings by sourcing any readable file in /etc/profile.d/.
    Using /etc/profile is well suited to set the environment or to do some small tasks. Note that these scripts must return control in order to continue with the login.
    Remove the file /etc/profile.d or the additions to /etc/profile in order to undo the automatic execution.
    Add a script file in /etc/profile.d/*.sh.
    Example script file:
    #script file for deleting backup entries
    rm /home/root/*~
    You can start applications automatically when you login into your Window Manager or Desktop Environment.
    The lxsession session manager can start applications when the graphical environment is started. This can be achieved in two ways:
    - A lxsession specific way in which the entries in the files /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart and in ~/.config/lxsession/LXDE/autostart are parsed.
    - A generic way which many session managers support. Files in the folders /etc/xdg/autostart/ and ~/.config/autostart/ ending in .desktop get parsed and if applicable the application described therein is started.
    LXSession Autostart file
    Edit /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart or ~/.config/lxsession/LXDE/autostart. Add the application to a new line in the file. If you want that your application gets restarted should it get terminated abnormally, precede the application name with a @.
    e.g at @lxterminal to /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart
    @lxpanel --profile LXDE
    @pcmanfm --desktop --profile LXDE
    @xscreensaver -no-splash
    Note that this file is not a shell script and therefore shell acrobatics like redirectors and pipes are not allowed. If required this can be worked around by spawning a custom shell script which in turn can support the full shell feature set.
    .desktop files
    Creating a .desktop file.
    Adding the .desktop file to autostart.
    Note that in /usr/share/applications/ a number of .desktop files already exists which can be copied into the autostart folder
    For Example:
    If you want to execute lxterminal automatically at startup.
    Create a terminal.desktop in /etc/xdg/autostart/ .
    Add some keys like:
        [Desktop Entry]. (Must be the first line of every desktop file and is the section header to identify the block of key value pairs associated with the desktop. Necessary for the desktop to recognize the file correctly.)
        Name of the application.(The name of the Desktop Entry group - should be unique on the system )
        Type of the application. (Possible values are "Application", "Link" or "Directory".)
        Exec filename of the application plus optionally arguments.
        Terminal (Describes whether the application should run in a terminal.)
    File content with the entries should be as follows:
    [Desktop Entry]
    Save the .desktop file.
    Note: A graphical file manager will list .desktop files not with their file name but rather with the value of the key "Name". e.g. in the example above "LXTerminal".
    To disable the automatic start of an application, just either remove the respective .desktop file from /etc/xdg/autostart/ and/or .config/autostart/ or add the key NotShowIn=LXDE; to the desktop file. Alternatively use the graphical front end 'LXDE Menu'/Preferences/'Desktop Session Settings' and untick the 'Enabled' checkbox.

    How install and run application in linux

    1. Unpack the archive.
    2. To build catfish run
    3. To install catfish run either
          (sudo) make install
          (sudo) checkinstall
    4. For a list of command line options run
          catfish --help
    5. To create a distributable package of catfish run
          make deb

    if we have file with extension .sh:

    # sh namefile.sh

    before name file "sh"

    Eject / safely remove vs umount

    Eject USB drives / eject command

    The best way to unplug a USB external hard-drive, after proper unmounting, is:
    udisksctl power-off -b /dev/sdb
    udisks --detach /dev/sdb

    udisks --detach /dev/sdX

    So is not the same unmount, eject and detach
    udisks = power off the usb
    umount = just unmount the partition not the whole pendrive
    eject = the same or very close to umount command

    eject(1): eject removable media - Linux man page

    command line - Eject / safely remove vs umount - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange


    Create ISO

    # genisoimage -o %f.iso -V BACKUP -R -J %f

    Mount ISO

    # udisksctl loop-setup -f %f


    A Quick Benchmark: Gzip vs. Bzip2 vs. LZMA

    fuse-zip is an option and claims to be faster than the competition.
    # fuse-zip -r archivetest.zip /mnt
    archivemount is another:
    # archivemount -o readonly archivetest.zip /mnt

    Automatically Mount USB Drives On Ubuntu Or Debian Server ...


    UUID=5C802232802212D6 /media/mahdi/Sharing ntfs rw,auto,users 1 1
    #UUID=5C802232802212D6 /media/mahdi/Sharing ntfs rw,auto,users,exec,nls=utf8,umask=003,gid=46,uid=1000 0 0
    #UUID=/dev/disk/by-uuid/5C802232802212D6 /media/mahdi/Sharing1 ntfs nosuid,nodev,nofail,x-gvfs-show 0 0


    fstab - Debian Wiki


    Auto Mount


    Installing and Removing software - Debian

    1Add Debian Backports sources to /etc/apt/sources.list, also including the "contrib" component. For example:
    # Backported packages for Debian 7 "Wheezy"
    deb http://http.debian.net/debian/ wheezy-backports main contrib
    2Update the list of available packages:
    # apt-get update
    3Install the relevant linux-headers package for your system, for example:
    # apt-get install linux-headers-$(uname -r|sed 's,[^-]*-[^-]*-,,')
    # apt-get install linux-headers-$(uname -r|sed 's,[^-]*-[^-]*-,,') virtualbox
    4Install the wheezy-backports/virtualbox package:
    # apt-get -t wheezy-backports install virtualbox
    After install debian 64bit need
    This should be used as last resort. If you use this carelessly you can end up with a broken system. Please try the other answers before doing this.
    You can delete the lock file with the following command:
    sudo rm /var/lib/apt/lists/lock
    You may also need to delete the lock file in the cache directory
    sudo rm /var/cache/apt/archives/lock
    After that, try opening Synaptic again.
      rm -rf /var/libs/apt/lists/


    VBoxGuestAdditions is the latest version

     apt-get upgrade
     dpkg --add-architecture i386
    wget -q https://www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -
    deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/
    Replaced with:
    deb ftp://mirrors.usc.edu/pub/linux/distributions/debian/
    نحوه نصب بسته‌های دانلود شده دبیان
    به آدرسی که فولدر بسته‌های دبیان در آن است رفته و کد زیر را بزنید تا تمامی فایل‌های موجود در آن فولدر نصب شوند:
    dpkg -i *

    How install offline debian

    mount -t iso9660 -o ro /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom
    mount -t auto /dev/sdb1 /media/usb
     cp -v /media/cdrom/* /var/cache/apt/archives
     Remove old package .deb  in folder archive
    sudo dpkg-scanpackages /media/z/Files/apt/archives 2>&1 >/dev/null | grep -Po '((/.*?deb)(?=.*?repeat;))|used that.*?K(/.*deb)' | xargs rm

    Affairs Than Debian After Install

    • Whisker menu Add to  keyboard shortcut
      • You have to edit as a root /usr/share/mint-configuration-xfce/xfce4/xfconf/xfce-perchannel-xml/xfce4-keyboard-shortcuts.xml and comment out or delete this tag:
      • Then logout and login.
    • CTRL + ALT+F1 , CTRL+ALT+F8 f7

    Night Mode

    How to Change Display Brightness Using Command Line in Linux – Linux Hint
    How to change LCD brightness from command line (or via script)? - Ask Ubuntu

    Screen identification:

    xrandr -q
    xrandr -q | grep " connected"


    1000 — Lowest value (super warm/red) - 1.00000000, 0.18172716, 0.00000000, }, /* 1000K */
    4000 — Default night light on temperature
    5500 — Balanced night light temperature
    6500 — Default night light off temperature
    10000 — Highest value (super cool/blue)
    The three columns above are values for Red, Green and Blue.

    Daily mode:

    xrandr --output LVDS-1 --gamma 1:1:1 --brightness 1

    Night Mode:

    xrandr --output DP-1-1 --gamma 1.1:0.8:0.7 --brightness 0.5
    xrandr --output LVDS-1 --gamma 1.1:0.8:0.7 --brightness 0.5
    xrandr --output LVDS-1 --brightness 0.5

    Change Xfce Theme from bash script

    xfconf-query -c xsettings -p /Net/ThemeName -s "Adwaita-dark"

    Xfce4 - Deactive rolling in of window - disable xfce roll-up windows with mousewheel

    Open the xfce4-settings-editor via terminal
    Click xfwm4 / general / mousewheel_rollup and uncheck the enable box

    Disabling mouse-wheel window-shading in XFce?

    - go to settings> setting editor
    - click on xfwm4 in 'chanel side bar
    - uncheck 'mouesewheel_rollup'

    Hideen shade in xfce

    - go to windows manager > style > active

    - Click and drag the buttons to change the layout


    redshift -O 2600
    redshift -l 55.7:12.6 -t 5700:3600 -g 0.8 -m vidmode -v
    redshift -O 6500
    Use redshift -x to reset everything:
    -x Reset mode (remove adjustment from screen).
    A configuration file with the name `redshift.conf' can optionally be placed in
    `~/.config/'. The file has standard INI format. General program options are placed under
    the `redshift' header, while options for location providers and adjustment methods are
    placed under a header with the name of that provider or method. General options are:
    temp-day = integer
    Daytime temperature
    temp-night = integer
    Night temperature
    transition = 0 or 1
    Disable or enable transitions
    brightness-day = 0.1-1.0
    Screen brightness at daytime
    brightness-night = 0.1-1.0
    Screen brightness at night
    gamma = R:G:B
    Gamma adjustment to apply
    adjustment-method = name
    Select adjustment method. Options for the adjustment method can be given under the
    configuration file heading of the same name.
    location-provider = name
    Select location provider. Options for the location provider can be given under the
    configuration file heading of the same name.
    Options for location providers and adjustment methods can be found in the help output of
    the providers and methods.
    Example for Copenhagen, Denmark:
    $ redshift -l 55.7:12.6 -t 5700:3600 -g 0.8 -m vidmode -v
    An example configuration file with the same effect as the above command line:
    redshift.conf - configuration file for redshift and gtk-redshift
    ; Set the day and night screen temperatures
    ; Enable/Disable a smooth transition between day and night
    ; 0 will cause a direct change from day to night screen temperature.
    ; 1 will gradually increase or decrease the screen temperature
    ; Set the screen brightness. Default is 1.0
    ; It is also possible to use different settings for day and night since version 1.8.
    ; Set the screen gamma (for all colors, or each color channel individually)
    ; Set the location-provider: 'geoclue', 'gnome-clock', 'manual'
    ; type 'redshift -l list' to see possible values
    ; The location provider settings are in a different section.
    ; Set the adjustment-method: 'randr', 'vidmode'
    ; type 'redshift -m list' to see all possible values
    ; 'randr' is the preferred method, 'vidmode' is an older API
    ; but works in some cases when 'randr' does not.
    ; The adjustment method settings are in a different section.
    ; Configuration of the location-provider:
    ; type 'redshift -l PROVIDER:help' to see the settings
    ; e.g. 'redshift -l manual:help'
    ; Configuration of the adjustment-method
    ; type 'redshift -m METHOD:help' to see the settings
    ; ex: 'redshift -m randr:help'
    ; In this example, randr is configured to adjust screen 1.
    ; Note that the numbering starts from 0, so this is actually the second screen.

    GitHub - bimlas/xfce4-night-mode: XFCE4 plugin: Switch between light and dark variants of a theme

    16.04 - How do I enable night mode in display of Xubuntu? - Ask Ubuntu


    ۱۸ دستور برای نظارت بر پهنای باند شبکه در سرورهای لینوکسی | مرکز آموزش زاگریو


    mount -n -o remount,ru /
    sudo modprobe module_name
    sudo modprobe


    nmcli g
    nmcli device show
    nmcli monitor
    nmcli device wifi hotspot ssid www.fadak.ir password 12345678
    nmcli connection up Personal
    nmcli connection up Public
    nmcli connection down/up mcinet
    nmcli connection show
    nmcli radio wifi on/off
    nmcli radio all on/off
    There is a way to toggle the state of the WiFi connection. It might be useful to know.
    nmcli radio wifi `nmcli r wifi | grep enabled -c | sed -e "s/1/off/" | sed -e "s/0/o
    nmcli radio help
    nmcli radio wwan
    nmcli radio wwan on/off
    nmcli networking on/off

    nmcli dev wifi list
    nmcli dev status
    nmcli device show

    nmcli: NetworkManager Reference Manual
    nmcli-examples: NetworkManager Reference Manual


    gammu getussd "*555#"

    Install Modem DLink

    cd /media/apt/dlink/
    sudo tar –xf *.gz
    cd /home/mahdi/D310A/
    sudo ./install.sh
    sudo ./install.sh
    sudo sh install.sh

    sudo mount /dev/sr0 /mnt
    cd /mnt
    sudo cp DTLWA_D310A_linux_v7.0.3WW_151014.tar.gz /home
    cd /home
    sudo tar -xf DTLWA_D310A_linux_v7.0.3WW_151014.tar.gz
    sudo ./install.sh
    cd /mnt
    sudo mount /dev/sr0 /mnt
    unmount /mnt
    sudo mount /dev/sr0 /mnt
    unlink /mnt
    sudo unmount /mnt
    sudo unlink /mnt
    sudo ./install.sh
    cd /home
    sudo ./install.sh
    sudo gedit /etc/3g_modem_connection/apn.dat
    cd /etc/3g_modem_connection/

    65 sudo ./install.sh
    66 cd /home
    sudo ./install.sh
    sudo ./uninstall.sh
    cd /home/mahdi/Mobile/
    sudo cp DTLWA_D310A_linux_v7.0.3WW_151014.tar.gz /home
    sudo tar -xf DTLWA_D310A_linux_v7.0.3WW_151014.tar.gz
    sudo tar -xf /home/DTLWA_D310A_linux_v7.0.3WW_151014.tar.gz
    sudo ./install.sh

    Call time


    echo now=$(date +%s)
    echo "Its" `date "+%l O clock now"` | festival --tts
    saytime -r 60

    festival --tts

    echo This is my custom message | festival --tts
    10:34 | festival --tts
    echo 10:34 | festival --tts
    echo date | festival --tts
    echo $(date) | festival --tts


    xfconf-query -c xsettings -p /Net/ThemeName -s "Adwaita"
    xfconf-query -c xsettings -p /Net/ThemeName -s "Adwaita-dark"


    Cron job every 2 hours

    systemctl restart cron.service
    crontab -e
    crontab -l
    crontab -u root -l
    crontab -u mahdi -l
    sudo grep CRON /var/log/syslog

    @reboot /usr/bin/dircproxy

    ls -ld /etc/cron*
    cat /etc/crontab

    grep CRON /var/log/syslog


    xfconf-query -c xfce4-keyboard-shortcuts -l -v | cut -d'/' -f4 | awk '{printf "%30s", $2; print " " $1}' | sort | uniq

    tlmgr install euenc

    nano /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
    exo-open --launch FileManager %S
    exo-open --launch FileManager

    sudo apt list --installed > n.txt

    pdftotext -layout -f M -l N /home/mahdi/Downloads/Article/jha-v17n57p26-fa.pdf /home/mahdi/Downloads/Article/jha-v17n57p26-fa.html
    pdftotext -layout /home/mahdi/Downloads/Article/jha-v17n57p26-fa.pdf /home/mahdi/Downloads/Article/jha-v17n57p26-fa.html
    pdftotext -layout /home/mahdi/Downloads/Article/SSU_Journa-v16n2p3-fa.pdf /home/mahdi/Downloads/Article/SSU_Journa-v16n2p3-fa.txt
    journalctl -xe NM_CONNECTION=6ba97fcf-a67e-48df-b54b-46faf891941d + NM_DEVICE=wlo1


    udisksctl --help
    udisksctl power-off
    udisksctl power-off /dev/sdc
    udisksctl status
    udisksctl status
    udisksctl unmount -b /dev/sdc2
    udisksctl power-off -b /dev/sda


    xrandr -q | grep " connected"
    xrandr --output LVDS-1 --gamma 1.1:0.8:0.7 --brightness 0.55
    xrandr --output LVDS-1 --gamma 1:1:1 --brightness 1


    systemctl poweroff
    systemctl reboot


    sudo apt install snapd
    sudo snap install android-studio --classic
    sudo snap install wps-office --classic

    How to Install Android Studio in Ubuntu 18.04 – Linux Hint

    How to install and run Android Apps on Ubuntu using Anbox | FOSS Linux

    Devive Manager

    ls /dev/tty*


    wine explorer
    winefile --help
    winefile home
    wine /home/mahdi
    wine /home/mahdi/Everything.exe

    MYSQL & PHP &

    chmod 777 '/var/www/html'
    php --version
    apt-get install apache2 mariadb-server  php libapache2-mod-php samba vnc4server
    service apache2 restart
    mariadb-server (mysql)
    apt install httpd mariadb-server  php mysql
    mysqladmin -uuser -ppassword shutdown
    mysql -uroot -ppassword
    ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'NewPassword';
    systemctl restart mysql
    sudo nano /etc/php/7.4/apache2/php.ini
    sudo geany /etc/php/7.4/cli/php.ini
    service mysql restart
    systemctl restart apache2.service

    Restart services in linux(debian)

    Restart PHP by restarting your web-server
    Type the following command as per your web-server.
    Restart Apache for php service
    If you are using Apache web server type the following command to restart the php:
    # /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
    # apache2ctl restart
    See how to restart Apache Web Server on Ubuntu Linux for more information.
    Restart Nginx for php service
    If you are using Nginx web-server type the following command to restart nginx:
    # /etc/init.d/nginx restart
    # service nginx restart
    # nginx -s reload
    Restart Lighttpd for php service
    If you are using Lighttpd web-server type the following command to restart lightpd:
    # /etc/init.d/lighttpd restart
    # service lighttpd restart
    Restart PHP-FAM Fastcgi for PHP service
    If you are running php via PHP-FAM fastcgi manager, use any one of the following as per your version of Linux/Unix:
    # /etc/init.d/php-fpm restart
    # /etc/init.d/php5-fpm restart
    # service php-fpm restart
    # service php5-fpm restart
    # restart php-fpm


    sudo systemctl restart apache2.service
    sudo systemctl restart apache2
    sudo service apache2 restart


    sudo apt install samba
    mkdir /home//sambashare/
    sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf

        comment = Samba on Ubuntu
        path = /home/username/sambashare
        read only = no
       browsable = yes

    sudo service smbd restart
    sudo smbpasswd -a username

    Samba GUI page

    One of the most asked for features for Samba is a graphical user interface to help with configuration and management. This is finally starting to happen.
    In fact, there are now several GUI interfaces to Samba available. Some of them are listed below and I will add the others as soon as I can find the URLs.
    Smb4K - An SMB share browser for KDE
    Smb4K is an SMB share browser for KDE. Its features are inspired by Komba2 by Frank Schwanz. It uses the Samba software suite for an easy access to the SMB shares of your local network neighborhood.
    LDAP Account Manager
    LDAP Account Manager (lam) is a webfrontend for managing accounts stored in an OpenLDAP directory. It supports Samba 3/4 users, groups and hosts.
    Webmin is a general web based unix administration tool with a Samba component. Have a look at the Webmin pages.
    This SMB2WWW is an extension to smbclient, so you can use it directly as a CGI-binary. You can get more information at http://www.scintilla .utwente.nl/users/frank/smb2www/.
    smb-mode.el - Emacs mode
    smb-mode.el is an Emacs mode for editing smb.conf.
    gnomba - A GNOME SMB Subnet Scanner
    Gnomba is a GUI machine and share browser for the SMB protocol. Gnomba allows you to scan any number of subnets for machines with SMB. The workgroups, machines and share are shown in a tree-view. For each machine you can then view the list of shares, and mount, unmount or browse them.
    jags - Yet Another GNOME SMB Client
    Jags is a Gtk+ based "windows network neighbourhood browser". The program parses the output from smbclient and use this to display a graphic view of the network. This program does the parsing with help from shell- scripts.
    komba2 - A KDE SMB Subnet Scanner
    Komba2 is a GUI machine and share browser for the SMB protocol. Komba2 allows you to scan any number of subnets for machines with SMB. The workgroups, machines and share are shown in a tree-view. For each machine you can then view the list of shares, and mount, unmount or browse them. You can also search a machine by name or ip.
    konqueror - KDE File Browser
    KDE's filebrowser Konqueror can access smb filesystems using smb:// URL's.
    KSambaPlugin is a KDE 3 plugin for configuring a SAMBA server. It consists of two plugins, a KControl Center module for all SAMBA options and a Konqueror properties dialog plugin for quickly configuring the SAMBA share options of a directory.
    This is a web-based tool that allows users to change their unix,samba and squid password using a web-based interface. Freely available here.
    smbc - Simple Samba Commander
    Simple Samba Commander is a text mode SMB network commander. With SMBC, you can browse your local network or use the search function to find files in a share. You can also download/upload files and directories or create them both locally and remotely. SMBC features the resume capability and UTF-8 encoding support.
    SMB Web Client
    SMB Web Client is a single PHP script to access Windows Networks similar to Windows Network Environment. It requires smbclient, PHP 4.1.x+, and a web server.
    Davenport WebDAV-SMB Gateway
    Davenport is a servlet that makes it possible to access samba-shares via webdav through a servlet-container. It allows access to samba-shares through a firewall/proxy without the need to open the smb-related ports and without a VPN-client. See http://davenport.sourceforge.net/ for more info.
    QtSmbstatus is a GUI for smbstatus. It is meant to provide the possibility of administering remote machines. QtSmbstatus was designed as a client/server system (with SSL). Possibilities include: view connections, disconnect a user, or send a message (with smbclient -M). For more info see, http://qtsmbstatus.free.fr/.
    LDAP Admin
    Ldap Admin is a free Win32 application for managing LDAP directories. This tool lets you browse, search, modify, create and delete objects on an LDAP server.
    SMBNetFS is a Linux filesystem that allows you to use Samba/Microsoft network in the same manner as the network neighborhood in Microsoft Windows. The program uses fuse() and libsmbclient. Currently SMBNetFs work on Linux 2.4/2.6, but should work also on FreeBSD 6.0.
    IntegraTUM WebDisk
    IntegraTUM WebDisk is a free web application which gives you direct access to a file server. It is written using Java Servlets and the jCIFS library. Supported file servers are Samba, MS Windows and NetApp OnTAP and those based on the CIFS-protocol.
    SambaDAV is an SMB-to-WebDAV bridge, written in PHP and running as a web application on Linux servers. It acts as the glue between Windows Samba/CIFS filesharing and WebDAV internet file access.



    python3 /home/mahdi/Desktop/search2.py

    nuitkf /home/mahdi/Desktop/search3.py
    nuitka /home/mahdi/Desktop/search3.py
    cd '/home/mahdi/Desktop'

    chmod +x Search4.py
    chmod 777 Search4.py
    chmod -x Search4.py
    chmod +x Search5.py

    chmod +x /home/mahdi/Desktop/Search5.py
    cd /home/mahdi/Downloads/locatefish-master
    make install
    sudo make install

    find "search"
    find -f "search*"

    cd /home/mahdi/Downloads/Catfish/fsearch-master
    sh autogen.sh
    chmod +x /home/mahdi/Desktop/Flocate6.py
    eject /dev/sdc1
     unmount MULTIBOOT


    WPS Office 2019 For Linux,WPS For Linux
    Flatpak—the future of application distribution         WPS Office—Linux Apps on Flathub
    Install wps-office for Linux using the Snap Store | Snapcraft
    The Most Compatible Free Linux Office Suite | WPS Office



    echo 'dir::cache::archives /media/m/Sharing/archives/;' >> /etc/apt/apt.conf
    apt upgrade



    gammu getussd "*100*1*0#"
    gammu getussd "*555#"

    mmcli -L
    mmcli -m 1 --3gpp-ussd-initiate=*555#

    gammu getussd "*100*1*0#"


    gir1.2-keybinder-3.0 gstreamer1.0-gtk3:amd64 xfburn libburn4:amd64 xfce4-weather-plugin xfce4-mailwatch-plugin xfce4-panel libexo-1-0:amd64 libisofs6:amd64 libjs-sphinxdoc libjs-underscore libjte2:amd64 xfce4-pulseaudio-plugin:amd64 libkeybinder-3.0-0:amd64 xfce4-clipman-plugin xfce4-clipman libqrencode4:amd64 libreoffice-gtk3 parole libtagc0:amd64 libxfce4ui-utils xfce4-sensors-plugin libxnvctrl0:amd64 mousepad node-html5shiv python3-feedparser ristretto tango-icon-theme xfce4-appfinder xfce4-battery-plugin xfce4-cpufreq-plugin xfce4-cpugraph-plugin xfce4-datetime-plugin xfce4-dict xfce4-diskperf-plugin xfce4-fsguard-plugin:amd64 xfce4-netload-plugin xfce4-screenshooter xfce4-smartbookmark-plugin xfce4-systemload-plugin xfce4-timer-plugin:amd64 xfce4-verve-plugin xfce4-wavelan-plugin xfce4-whiskermenu-plugin xfce4-xkb-plugin
    redshift redshift-gtk

    20 Best FREE YouTube Playlist Downloader Online (2020)




    Softorino YouTube Converter





    iTube HD Video Downloader

    Download YouTube Videos in Linux Command Line

    What are the Best Youtube Video Downloader for Ubuntu


    GitHub - ejabu/quran-tron: Quran Offline powered by Electron, React, NeDB





    Dolphin Service Menus


    [Desktop Entry]

    [Desktop Action search]
    Exec=/usr/bin/catfish --path=%u

    Search Here [MATE Search Tool] - KDE Store

    bash: adduser: command not found

    $ su -l
    # adduser sudo
    # logout


    LibreOffice 7.0: Release Notes - The Document Foundation Wiki

    برترین توزیع‌های لینوکس در کاربری‌های مختلف 2014 - XMEN Team


    In the 6th step i had typed "sudo insmod" instead of "sudo /sbin/insmod"
    To black list a module or driver you don't have to use a command "blacklist".
    Open this file (Create it if it does not exist):
    sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf
    add a line like this:
    blacklist nouveau
    save the file, reboot the system. You can use modprobe -r nouveau to remove it temporary.




    Best Image Viewers for Linux
    Note: You should be able to find these image viewers listed in your software center or AppCenter. If you don’t find it there, we’ve mentioned the instructions for manual installation as well.
    1. Nomacs
    What’s good about it?
    Simple & Fast UI
    Image adjustment tools (color & size)
    Geolocation of the image
    Metadata information panel
    LAN Synchronization
    Fullscreen mode
    A free and open source image viewer that does not come baked with any fancy features. However, Nomacs does support most of the common image file formats if you want to use it.
    The user interface is very simple but it does offer some essential features for image adjustment (color, brightness, resize, crop, & cut). In addition to that, it also supports fullscreen mode, histogram, and a lot of different panels that you can toggle for metadata, edit history, and more such information.
    How do I install it?
    You can find it listed in the software center/AppCenter for easy installation. If you want to install it via terminal, you can take a look at their GitHub page or type in the command below:
    sudo apt install nomacs
    2. Eye Of Gnome
    What’s good about it?
    A dead simple image viewer
    Slideshow style (if that’s what you like)
    An image viewer tailored for GNOME desktop environment
    This is a classic image viewer developed as a part of The GNOME Project a lot of years ago. Do note that this isn’t actively maintained anymore. But, it still works on Ubuntu’s latest LTS release and several other Linux distros.
    If you want a dead simple image viewer where you browse through the images in a slideshow-type UI and get the meta info in the sidebar, Eye of GNOME should be your choice. One of the best for GNOME desktop environment!
    How do I install it?
    To manually install it on Ubuntu (or Ubuntu-based Linux distros) type in the following command:
    sudo apt install eog
    For other distros and source, you should follow the GitHub page.
    3. Eye Of MATE Image Viewer
    What’s good about it?
    A simple image viewer
    Plugins supported
    An image viewer tailored for MATE desktop environment
    Yet another simple image viewer with the basic functionalities of slideshow view and rotating images.
    Even if doesn’t support any image manipulation feature, it does support numerous image file formats and can handle big image files.
    How do I install it?
    For Ubuntu/Ubuntu-based distros, type in the following command:
    sudo apt install eom
    If you need help for other distros and the source, follow their GitHub page.
    4. Geeqie
    What’s good about it?
    A flexible image manager that supports plugins (you’ll find other image viewers supported as well)
    Information about the color profile
    Geeqie is an impressive image manager and viewer. It supports other image viewers as plugins but does not offer any image manipulation tools.
    If you need to know the color profile, image info, and manage/view a collection of images. It should be a good choice for that.
    How do I install it?
    Type in the terminal:
    sudo apt install geeqie
    For the source, you can refer the GitHub page.
    5. gThumb Image Viewer
    What’s good about it?
    An all-in-one image viewer with the ability to manage, edit and view the images
    Reset EXIF orientation
    Convert image formats
    Find duplicate images
    gThumb is an amazing image viewer with a lot of features. You get an impressive user interface to view/manage your images along with the basic image manipulation tools (crop, resize, color, and so on.)
    You can also add comments to an image or reset the EXIF orientation info. It also gives you the ability to find duplicate images and convert image formats.
    How do I install it?
    You can enter this command in the terminal:
    sudo apt install gthumb
    If that doesn’t work, head to the GitHub page for more info.
    6. Gwenview
    What’s good about it?
    A basic image viewer with common image manipulation tools to rotate and resize
    Feature extension using KIPI plugins
    Gwenview is just another basic image viewer tailored for KDE desktop environment. However, you can install it on other desktop environments as well.
    If you utilize the Konqueror web browser, you can use it as an embedded image viewer. Here, you can add comments/description to the image as well. In addition, it supports KIPI plugins.
    How do I install it?
    Type the following in the terminal to install it:
    sudo apt install gwenview
    For the source, check out their GitHub page.
    7. Mirage
    What’s good about it?
    Customizable interface even it is a basic UI
    Basic image manipulation tools
    Command-line access
    If you want a decent image viewer along with the ability to access it via command line, a fullscreen mode, slideshow mode, basic editing tools to resize/crop/rotate/flip, and a configurable interface – Mirage would be the simplest option.
    It is a very fast and capable image viewer that supports a lot of image formats that include png, jpg, svg, xpm, gif, bmp, and tifff.
    How do I install it?
    You need to type in the following:
    sudo apt install mirage
    For the source code and other installation instructions, refer the GitHub page.
    8. KPhotoAlbum
    What’s good about it?
    Perfect image manager to tag and manage the pictures
    Demo databases
    Image compression
    Merge/Remove images to/from Stack
    KPhotoAlbum is not exactly a dedicated image viewer but a photo manager to tag and manage the pictures you’ve got.
    You can opt for slideshows to view the image along with the ability to compress images and search them using the labels/tags.
    How do I install it?
    You can install it via the terminal by typing in:
    sudo apt kphotoalbum
    In either case, you can check for the official instructions on their website to get it installed on your Linux distro.
    9. Shotwell
    What’s good about it?
    Red-eye correction tool
    Upload photos to Facebook, Flickr, etc.
    Supports RAW file formats as well
    Shotwell is a feature-rich photo manager. You can view and manage your photos. Although you do not get all the basic image manipulation tools baked in it – you can easily crop and enhance your photos in a single click (auto brightness/contrast adjustments).
    How do I install it?
    Go to the terminal and enter the following (Ubuntu/Ubuntu-based distros):
    sudo apt install shotwell
    For more information, check out their GitHub page.
    10. Ristretto
    What’s good about it?
    A dead simple image viewer
    Fullscreen mode & Slideshow
    A very straightforward image viewer where you just get the ability to zoom, view in fullscreen mode and view the images as a slideshow.
    It is tailored for Xfce desktop environment – but you can install it anywhere.
    How do I install it?
    Even though it’s built for Xfce desktop environment, you can install it on any Ubuntu/Ubuntu-based distro by typing the following command in the terminal:
    sudo apt install ristretto
    11. digiKam
    What’s good about it?
    An all-in-one image viewer with advanced photo management features (editing/managing/viewing)
    Batch Queue Manager
    Light Table
    digiKam is an advanced photo manager with some additional image manipulation tools. You get the ability to configure the database using SQLite or MySQL.
    To enhance your experience of viewing images, it lets you choose the reduced version of images while you preview them. So, that becomes super fast even if you have a lot of images. You get several import/export options via Google, Facebook, Imgur, and so on. If you want a feature-rich image viewer, this is the one you should have installed.
    How do I install it?
    Type in the following command:
    sudo apt install digikam



    xfce:thunar:custom-actions [Xfce Docs]

    ThunarCustomActions - Community Help Wiki

    scripts - Add "delete confirmation prompt" in Thunar - Ask Ubuntu

    ThunarCustomActions - Community Help Wiki

    thunar/NEWS at master · xfce-mirror/thunar · GitHub


    Xfce Very important (terminal)

    For the user:


    System wide:



    xfce:thunar:custom-actions [Xfce Docs]

    - Prevent unnecessary fallback copy-delete in file move when overwriting



    (gtk_accel_path "/ThunarActions/uca-action-1484038296058938-2" "Delete")

    Back Up The XFCE4

    How To Back Up The XFCE4 Desktop Settings On Linux


    How to enable complete dark mode in LibreOffice

    How to enable complete dark mode in LibreOffice
    As I mentioned earlier, you need to enable a system-wide dark mode first. This will ensure that the window color (or the title bar) blends well with the in-app dark color.
    Next, open any LibreOffice tool from the suite such as Writer. Then from the menu, click Tools -> Options -> Application Colors and select Document background & Application background as Black or Automatic (whichever works for you).
    Libreoffice Application Colours
    In case the icons are not in dark colour, you can change them from menu (as shown in the image below), Tools -> Options -> View and my personal choice on MX Linux, is the Yaru icon style from Ubuntu (if you have a dark version of the icon pack, select that).
    Libreoffice Iconstyle
    Of course, you can also try some other icon themes available for Linux distros.
    The end result should look like this:
    3 Libreoffice Dark
    Additional tip for LibreOffice flatpak package
    If you’re using the Flatpak package of LibreOffice suite, the header area (or the menu area) of LibreOffice may look white. In that case, you can try navigating to Tools-> Options-> Personalization and then select the “Grey theme” as shown in the screenshot below.


    midori:faq [Xfce Wiki]

    WebKitGTK+ Reference Manual: WebKitWebSettings


    SSH - Debian Wiki


    rsync -zvh –progress /var/www/html/* /media/m/Sharing/Backup/
    rsync -zvh /var/www/html/ /media/m/Sharing/Backup/ --delete-before
    rsync -av /var/www/html/ /media/m/Sharing/Backup/html/ --delete-before


    crontab -e


    The PATH is an important concept when working on the command line. It's a list of directories that tell your operating system where to look for programs, so that you can just write script instead of /home/me/bin/script or C:UsersMeinscript. But different operating systems have different ways to add a new directory to it:
    The first step depends which version of Windows you're using:

    If you're using Windows 8 or 10, press the Windows key, then search for and select "System (Control Panel)".
    If you're using Windows 7, right click the "Computer" icon on the desktop and click "Properties".

    Click "Advanced system settings".
    Click "Environment Variables".
    Under "System Variables", find the PATH variable, select it, and click "Edit". If there is no PATH variable, click "New".
    Add your directory to the beginning of the variable value followed by ; (a semicolon). For example, if the value was C:WindowsSystem32, change it to C:UsersMein;C:WindowsSystem32.
    Click "OK".
    Restart your terminal.

    Mac OS X
    Open the .bash_profile file in your home directory (for example, /Users/your-user-name/.bash_profile) in a text editor.
    Add export PATH="your-dir:$PATH" to the last line of the file, where your-dir is the directory you want to add.
    Save the .bash_profile file.
    Restart your terminal.

    Open the .bashrc file in your home directory (for example, /home/your-user-name/.bashrc) in a text editor.
    Add export PATH="your-dir:$PATH" to the last line of the file, where your-dir is the directory you want to add.
    Save the .bashrc file.
    Restart your terminal.


    systemctl set-default graphical.target

    apt install gir1.2-keybinder-3.0 gstreamer1.0-gtk3:amd64 xfburn libburn4:amd64 xfce4-weather-plugin xfce4-mailwatch-plugin xfce4-panel libexo-1-0:amd64 libisofs6:amd64 libjs-sphinxdoc libjs-underscore libjte2:amd64 xfce4-pulseaudio-plugin:amd64 libkeybinder-3.0-0:amd64 xfce4-clipman-plugin xfce4-clipman libqrencode4:amd64 libreoffice-gtk3 parole libtagc0:amd64 libxfce4ui-utils xfce4-sensors-plugin libxnvctrl0:amd64 mousepad node-html5shiv python3-feedparser ristretto tango-icon-theme xfce4-appfinder xfce4-battery-plugin xfce4-cpufreq-plugin xfce4-cpugraph-plugin xfce4-datetime-plugin xfce4-dict xfce4-diskperf-plugin xfce4-fsguard-plugin:amd64 xfce4-netload-plugin xfce4-screenshooter xfce4-smartbookmark-plugin xfce4-systemload-plugin xfce4-timer-plugin:amd64 xfce4-verve-plugin xfce4-wavelan-plugin xfce4-whiskermenu-plugin xfce4-xkb-plugin

    apt-get install xfce4-panel xfdesktop4 xfwm4 xfce4-settings xfce4-session xfce4-terminal xfce4-power-manager xfce4-pulseaudio-plugin:amd64 xfce4-battery-plugin xfce4-datetime-plugin xfce4-whiskermenu-plugin --no-install-recommends

    apt install lightdm xfce4 xfce4-goodies synaptic --no-install-recommends
    From the console
    Xfce can be started from the console simply by running the startxfce4 command. startxfce4 is a script that sets the required environment variables and calls Xinit to start the X server with the Xfce session.

    Devuan GNU+Linux Free Operating System

    GitHub - spanezz/nodm: Automatic display manager

    Xfce - Debian Wiki

    Devuan GNU+Linux Free Operating System

    GitHub - spanezz/nodm: Automatic display manager

    Xfce Git repository browser




    Keyboard Shortcuts
    Keyboard shortcuts can be configured by editing your ~/.config/xfce4/terminal/accels.scm file.



    mmcli -L
    mmcli -m 3 -e فعال کردن
    mmcli -m 3 -d غیر فعال کردن
    systemctl status ModemManager.service
    mmcli -p -d /dev/cdc-wdm0 --query-device-caps
    mmcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm2 --3gpp-ussd-initiate="*555#"
    mmcli -m 3 --3gpp-ussd-initiate="*555#"

    Balance of GSM USB Modem using USSD - Ask Ubuntu


    gammu getussd "*555#"

    Display manager (desktop login screen)


    nano /etc/default/nodm


    Open Whisker Menu with Win key


    جستجو در پرونده و پوشه‌ها


    Before I started working on Flocate I took a look at all the existing solutions I found (MATE Search Tool (formerly GNOME Search Tool), Recoll, Krusader (locate based search), SpaceFM File Search, Nautilus, ANGRYsearch, Catfish, ...) to find out whether it makes sense to improve those, instead of building a completely new application. But unfortunately none of those met my requirements



    Before I started working on FSearch I took a look at all the existing solutions I found (MATE Search Tool (formerly GNOME Search Tool), Recoll, Krusader (locate based search), SpaceFM File Search, Nautilus, ANGRYsearch, Catfish, ...) to find out whether it makes sense to improve those, instead of building a completely new application. But unfortunately none of those met my requirements:

    GitHub - cboxdoerfer/fsearch: A fast file search utility for Unix-like systems based on GTK+3

    $ sudo apt install git build-essential automake autoconf libtool pkg-config intltool autoconf-archive libpcre3-dev libglib2.0-dev libgtk-3-dev libxml2-utils
    $ git clone https://github.com/cboxdoerfer/fsearch.git
    $ cd fsearch
    $ ./autogen.sh
    $ ./configure
    $ make && sudo make install

    8 Most Awesome Quick File Searching Tools for Linux Desktop

    اضافه کردن به برنامه‌ها

    Make a .desktop file in ~/.local/share/applications/ for your application with a text editor. If done right, this will cause an entry in the main menu, and supply the needed information to the system to run it.

    File name looks like:

    .desktop [ex: leafpad.desktop]

    Example: (replace <...> with appropriate content)


    [Desktop Entry]


    There are numerous possible keys. All the specifications are here to study:


    More .desktop files to see are in /usr/share/applications, but those are for all users.


    در صورت عدم امکان تغییرات(نوشتن) روی این پارتیشن، فرمان زیر اجرا شود:
    sudo ntfsfix /dev/sda4
    permissions - Can't write to NTFS formatted drives - Ask Ubuntu






    Speaking Clock

    software recommendation - How do you get an hourly talking clock? - Ask Ubuntu

    talking-clock/control at master · pikkewyn/talking-clock · GitHub

    sound - How to make speaking clock ( via cron and festival tts) work while playing music - Ask Ubuntu


    Newbie: Intro to cron

    xfce4-power-manager - Panel Plugin

    Display Brightness
    Allows control of the laptop's display brightness with the slider
    Presentation Mode
    Ticking this option temporarily overrides any suspend settings in Power Manager Settings and will prevent interruptions due to inactivity in the course of giving a presentation.
    Power Manager Settings...
    Launches the Xfce Power Manager settings dialog.



    Keyboard shortcuts - Geany Wiki

    Themes | Geany

    Settings Keyboard




    # mkdir /media/usb
    # mount -t auto /dev/sdb1 /media/usb
    echo 'dir::cache::archives /media/usb/apt/archives;' >> /etc/apt/apt.conf
    rm /etc/apt/sources.list
    #echo "deb http://mirror.yandex.ru/debian testing main contrib non-free deb http://mirror.yandex.ru/debian stable main contrib non-free deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org sid main non-free #deb http://mirror.yandex.ru/debian stable main #deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org wheezy main non-free" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
    echo "deb http://mirror.yandex.ru/debian testing main contrib non-free" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
    echo "deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org testing main non-free" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
    #cp -v /media/usb/apt/varaptlists/* /var/lib/apt/lists/
    #cp -v /var/lib/apt/lists/* /media/z/Files/apt/varaptlists/
    dpkg --add-architecture i386
    apt-get update
    apt-get dist-upgrade
    apt-get upgrade
    ifconfig wlp2s0 up
    iwconfig wlp2s0 essid Ali
    dhclient wlp2s0
    #apt-get dist-upgrade

    Latex - Debian Wiki

    Debian -- List of sections in "bullseye"

    اجرای خودکار در اول ویندوز


    دانلود و اجرای بسته‌ها

    How to extract a .deb file without opening it on Debian or Ubuntu Linux - nixCraft

    Building a Debian (`.deb`) source package, and publishing it on an Ubuntu PPA – Saverio Miroddi – 64K RAM SYSTEM  38911 BASIC BYTES FREE






    Intel(R) Centrino(R) Advanced-N 6205
    apt-get install network-manager
    apt-get install firmware-iwlwifi
    apt-get install network-manager-gnome

    1. Overall bandwidth - nload, bmon, slurm, bwm-ng, cbm, speedometer, netload
    2. Overall bandwidth (batch style output) - vnstat, ifstat, dstat, collectl
    2. Bandwidth per socket connection - iftop, iptraf, tcptrack, pktstat, netwatch, trafshow
    3. Bandwidth per process - nethogs

    مدیریت پروژه(Project Management Software)

    Odoo Suite of open-source business apps written in Python
    OpenProject Collaborative project management
    MyCollab Project Management, CRM and Document Management
    Taiga Web-based tool for agile project management
    Redmine Flexible application written using the Ruby on Rails framework
    ProjectLibre Standalone replacement for Microsoft Project
    GanttProject Graphical Java program for editing Gantt charts
    eGroupWare Enterprise ready web-based groupware suite with project management
    dotProject Web-based, multi-user, multi-language project management application
    Taskjuggler Modern and powerful open source project management tool
    Planner The GNOME project management tool
    Libreplan Project planning, monitoring and control

    PackageManagementTools - Debian Wiki

    4000 Essential English word with Pic and Persian description - AnkiWeb

    4000 Essential English Words (all books) [en-en] M4R4M - AnkiWeb

    4000 Essential English Words 1 [en-en] M4R4M - AnkiWeb

    Telegram linux

    wget -O - https://tdesktop.com/linux > tsetup.tar.gz


    OCR - Community Help Wiki

    tesseract: command-line OCR engine - Linux Man Pages (1)

    Tesseract OCR for Non-English Languages - PyImageSearch

    Create box file for Persian/Arabic text in tesseract 4.00 · Issue #1320 · tesseract-ocr/tesseract · GitHub

    GitHub - tesseract-ocr/tesseract: Tesseract Open Source OCR Engine (main repository)

    How to Compress PDF in Linux [GUI & Terminal] - It's FOSS

    sudo apt install ghostscript

    gs -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -dCompatibilityLevel=1.4 -dPDFSETTINGS=/prepress -dNOPAUSE -dQUIET -dBATCH -sOutputFile=compressed_PDF_file.pdf 00.pdf

    The good ghostscript:
    gs -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE -q -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -sOutputFile=merged.pdf mine1.pdf mine2.pdf
    or even this way for an improved version for low resolution PDFs (thanks to Adriano for pointing this out):
    gs -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE -q -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -dPDFSETTINGS=/prepress -sOutputFile=merged.pdf mine1.pdf mine2.pdf
    In both cases the ouput resolution is much higher and better than this way using convert:

    sudo apt install imagemagick
    convert -density 300x300 -quality 100 mine1.pdf mine2.pdf merged.pdf

    I found a superb trick to shrink the size of PDFs, I reduced with it one PDF of 300 MB to just 15 MB with an acceptable resolution!

    gs -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -dCompatibilityLevel=1.4 -dPDFSETTINGS=/default -dNOPAUSE -dQUIET -dBATCH -dDetectDuplicateImages -dCompressFonts=true -r150 -sOutputFile=output.pdf input.pdf

    sudo apt install pdftk

    pdftk file1.pdf file2.pdf cat output output.pdf

    Pixelated (lossy):
    convert input.pdf -compress Zip output.pdf
    Unpixelated (lossless, but may display slightly differently):
    gs -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -dCompatibilityLevel=1.4 -dPDFSETTINGS=/screen -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dQUIET -sOutputFile=output.pdf input.pdf

    SQLite Database Recovery

    Run Two or More Terminal Commands at Once in Linux

    A ; B – Run A and then B, regardless of the success or failure of A
    A && B – Run B only if A succeeded
    A || B – Run B only if A failed

    8 Most Awesome Quick File Searching Tools for Linux Desktop

    7 Essential Tools to Search the Filesystem - LinuxLinks

    9 Best File Comparison and Difference (Diff) Tools for Linux

    Thunar custom actions

    PCLinuxOS Magazine - Page 8


    I want to run raspbian testing (bullseye). By default the following repos were enabled
    http://raspbian.raspberrypi.org/raspbian/ buster main contrib non-free rpi
    http://archive.raspberrypi.org/debian/ buster main
    The 2nd one doesnt offer the bullseye suite. Is it actually needed at all?
    apt source.list
    Usually you have an image of the Raspbian version that you can download from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/raspbian/ or from https://downloads.raspberrypi.org/. But as far as I know there is no image available for the testing version Raspbian Bullseye so you have to install it from the repository.
    There are two ways to install Bullseye from the repository:
    full upgrade from Buster
    bootstrapped from the repository
    I prefer to use bootstrap because then you have a clean configuration and not modified old (from Buster) configuration files. How to do it you can refer to Install base Raspbian from repository, not using an image but I haven't tested it for this answer. So I will look only at the full upgrade.
    There may be an additional problem with the firmware. I also haven't found specific one for Bullseye at http://archive.raspberrypi.org/debian/dists/ but that is needed of course. So I try to use that for Buster.
    Upgrading from Buster is very easy. Just flash a fresh Buster image, boot it in your RasPi and update it:
    rpi ~$ sudo apt update
    rpi ~$ sudo apt full-upgrade
    rpi ~$ sudo systemctl reboot
    Then just modify the first line in /etc/apt/sources.list
    # from
    deb http://raspbian.raspberrypi.org/raspbian/ buster main contrib non-free rpi
    # to
    deb http://raspbian.raspberrypi.org/raspbian/ bullseye main contrib non-free rpi
    Don't touch /etc/apt/sources.list.d/raspi.list so you will use the same kernel and firmware compiled for Buster.
    Then execute again:
    rpi ~$ sudo apt update
    rpi ~$ sudo apt full-upgrade
    rpi ~$ sudo systemctl reboot
    Login and check:
    rpi ~$ lsb_release -a
    No LSB modules are available.
    Distributor ID: Raspbian
    Description: Raspbian GNU/Linux bullseye/sid
    Release: testing
    Codename: bullseye

    List Network Interfaces in Debian

    How can I display the list of available WiFi networks? nmcli dev wifi

    To scan all networks try using the command sudo iw dev wlan0 scan | grep SSID.

    List Network Interfaces in Debian 10 – Linux Hint



    sudo apt install dkms gcc bzip2 make curl thunderbird mpv viewnior geany tesseract-ocr tesseract-ocr-ara tesseract-ocr-eng tesseract-ocr-fas tesseract-ocr-rus tesseract-ocr-script-arab rsync python3 modem-manager-gui mpv locate kazam kdiff3 gdebi ffmpeg mariadb-client anki chromium filezilla blueman xarchiver gimp filezilla blueman php-mbstring php-xmlreader php*-mbstring php*-intl php*-curl php*-xml php-sqlite3 exfat-fuse exfat-utils goldendict apache2 locate mlocate cron qt5ct apache2 php libapache2-mod-php samba vnc4server nuitka texmaker texlive-full texlive texlive-xetex texstudio




    How to check the health of a hard drive

    sudo fdisk -l



    sudo badblocks -v /dev/sda10 > badsectors.txt



    ------------ Specifically for ext2/ext3/ext4 file-systems ------------
    $ sudo e2fsck -l badsectors.txt /dev/sda10
    ------------ For other file-systems ------------
    $ sudo fsck -l badsectors.txt /dev/sda10



    sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda | less

    badblocks is one more useful utility; it shows the amount and location of bad blocks on your drive:
    sudo badblocks -v /dev/sda


    sudo apt install gsmartcontrol

    sudo apt install smartcontrol


    $ man smartctl
    $ smartctl -h


    $ sudo smartctl -H /dev/sda10

    smartctl -a /dev/sdX >> /home/username/Documents/drive-report.txt



    Unless you consider running chkdsk.exe under wine or virtualisation, Linux cannot run it. There is a linux compatible tool that can be used to fix ntfs partitions that is called ntfsfix and is available on most distribution repositories.
    It is NOT chkdsk for Linux and may not produce results compatible with Microsoft Windows, however it is able to fix some common ntfs possible problems. It may lose your data while attempting repairs, even though chkdsk may do that too. Example usage:
    ntfsfix /dev/sdxY
    Where you should replace xY with the appropriate letters for the partition you want to fix.


    Yes. This was handled by fsck on some releases. If the partition is not listed in /etc/fstab, then you will likely need to tell it the partition type. I've used this from a Linux CD to recover a partition Windows wouldn't boot from.
    Based on the comments below, the actual fixing is done by the ntfsfix program. It should be available, even if there is no program to run a fsck on and NTFS file system.


    ntfsfix /dev/sdxx
    This command comes from ntfsprogs.
    Do be warned (from the man page):
    ntfsfix is a utility that fixes some common NTFS problems. ntfsfix is NOT a Linux version of chkdsk. It only repairs some fundamental NTFS inconsistencies, resets the NTFS journal file and schedules an NTFS consistency check for the first boot into Windows.



    In my case, none of fsck & ntfsfix could fix the issue of my external NTFS mobile disk.
    I end up to boot into windows os, and use follow steps to fix the disk issue.
    Check the identifier of the bad disk. e.g g
    Open the "cmd" terminal of windows.
    Input chkdsk <disk>: /f to fix it.
    Where <disk> is the identifier, e.g chkdsk d: /f
    Then it would be fixed within seconds (For a disk of size 1Tb).
    After years, finally I found something that windows can do easily, but linux can't ;)





    How to Check Bad Sectors or Bad Blocks on Hard Disk in Linux

    windows - NTFS Repair - chkdsk from Linux - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange

    How to check hard drive health on Linux

    disk - Checking a NTFS drive with Linux - Ask Ubuntu



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